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Report/Evaluation Type:Country Focused Evaluations
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China CLR Review FY13-17

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China, with a population of 1.4 billion, is an upper middle-income country with a GNI per capita of $8,690 in 2017. During 2013-2017, the economy grew annually at 7.1 percent on average, slower than the previous CPS period of 11.0 percent. A long period of economic growth put pressure on the environment and raised serious sustainability challenges. China is now contributing around 30 percent to Show MoreChina, with a population of 1.4 billion, is an upper middle-income country with a GNI per capita of $8,690 in 2017. During 2013-2017, the economy grew annually at 7.1 percent on average, slower than the previous CPS period of 11.0 percent. A long period of economic growth put pressure on the environment and raised serious sustainability challenges. China is now contributing around 30 percent to the world’s GHG emissions, partly because it is the largest consumer of carbon for electricity. Significant gains in poverty reduction continued during the CPS period. Absolute poverty, measured at $1.90 per day (2011 PPP), dropped from 1.9 percent in 2013 to 0.5 percent in 2018. Poverty and vulnerability in China are concentrated in rural areas and lagging regions in Central and Western China. The welfare of the bottom 40 percent of the income distribution has increased steadily. The Gini coefficient dropped to .46 in 2015 after having risen to a high of .5 in 2008. China’s Human Capital Index (HCI) stands at 0.67 and ranks 45th amongst 158 countries. The CPS had two focus areas: (i) supporting greener growth; and (ii) promoting more inclusive development as well as a cross-cutting theme of advancing mutually beneficial relations with the world.

The World Bank Group Partnership with the Philippines, 2009–18

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The World Bank Group Partnership with the Philippines, 2009–18 Country Program Evaluation
This Country Program Evaluation (CPE) assesses the development effectiveness of the World Bank Group program in the Philippines between 2009 and 2018.This Country Program Evaluation (CPE) assesses the development effectiveness of the World Bank Group program in the Philippines between 2009 and 2018.

Ethiopia Country Assistance Evaluation

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This Country Assistance Evaluation (CAE) reviews the development framework in Ethiopia, between the period 1992 to 1997, to evaluate the assistance provided. In 1992, the new government adopted an agriculture-led development strategy, intended to avoid the biases against rural areas, as seen in Africa. Strategically, the Government sought to replace the state-controlled economy, with a market Show MoreThis Country Assistance Evaluation (CAE) reviews the development framework in Ethiopia, between the period 1992 to 1997, to evaluate the assistance provided. In 1992, the new government adopted an agriculture-led development strategy, intended to avoid the biases against rural areas, as seen in Africa. Strategically, the Government sought to replace the state-controlled economy, with a market economy, and devolve power to constituent states, rather than centralizing it in Addis Ababa. Structural reforms progressed well, with a fast growth in the real gross national product, conducive to likely poverty reductions, and, the Government committed to sector investment programs in education, health, and, roads. However, expectations regarding private sector development, have only been partially fulfilled, while reforms remain to be completed to sustain the development momentum. It is recommended that the Bank should now focus on: the development of multi-year programs, including reforms; a strategy to remove obstacles to private sector development, including faster liberalization of the financial sector; a strategy for promoting institutional development; and, a review on agricultural, and environmental assistance. Overall, assistance strategy should focus on policy reforms, whether or not adjustment credits are considered.

Ecuador Country Assistance Evaluation

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This Country Assistance Evaluation (CAE) focuses on the Bank ' s 1990s experience in Ecuador, relative to the 1993 country assistance strategy (CAS), regretfully, a strategy which underestimated the risks associated with society ' s weak commitment to reform. During the period FY94-98, the Bank moved too strongly, and too fast into a high lending scenario; as experienced, only one of the CAS Show MoreThis Country Assistance Evaluation (CAE) focuses on the Bank ' s 1990s experience in Ecuador, relative to the 1993 country assistance strategy (CAS), regretfully, a strategy which underestimated the risks associated with society ' s weak commitment to reform. During the period FY94-98, the Bank moved too strongly, and too fast into a high lending scenario; as experienced, only one of the CAS objectives - re-negotiation of the external debt - was substantially achieved, with meager progress results on poverty alleviation, public sector reform, and private sector development. Thus, the efficacy of the strategy fell short of satisfactory standards, and with respect to efficiency, standard benchmarks place the country ' s program within Bank-wide averages. Ratings on outcomes, and institutional development impacts were also average, but with comparatively very few projects - forty two percent - achieving sustainable benefits. However, investment projects did far better than adjustment operations, only half of which were satisfactory. Overall, the Bank assistance over the CAS period is rated unsatisfactory, sustainability unlikely, and institutional development impacts modest.

Argentina Country Assistance Evaluation

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This report is an update of the Country Assistance Review of Argentina completed in 1996 (report 15844). The prior report found a mixed outcome to the Bank's assistance during the 1980s and early 1990s. The present report looks at the economy of Argentina in the 1990s and the World Bank's assistance strategy. It concludes that the present outcome of the Bank's program has been fully satisfactory Show MoreThis report is an update of the Country Assistance Review of Argentina completed in 1996 (report 15844). The prior report found a mixed outcome to the Bank's assistance during the 1980s and early 1990s. The present report looks at the economy of Argentina in the 1990s and the World Bank's assistance strategy. It concludes that the present outcome of the Bank's program has been fully satisfactory, with the Bank playing a highly supportive role both in the economic transformation and helping the country weather the crisis. Still, important issues remain, including vulnerability, dependence on external capital, public finance improvements, and unemployment and poverty problems. OED recommends that the option to assist Argentina in times of externally induced crises be kept open, particularly to help alleviate the impact of such crises on the poor. In addition, the Bank should focus its assistance program ever more on the social agenda.

Tanzania Country Assistance Evaluation

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Peru: Country Program Evaluation for the World Bank Group, 2003–09

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Since 2003, Peru has emerged as an open, rapidly growing economy. Over the review period of 2003⠓09, successive governments adopted policy platforms aimed at maintaining macroeconomic stability, furthering the private sector supply response, broadening participation in growth, improving social service delivery, and strengthening public institutions. There was a strong supply response over the Show MoreSince 2003, Peru has emerged as an open, rapidly growing economy. Over the review period of 2003⠓09, successive governments adopted policy platforms aimed at maintaining macroeconomic stability, furthering the private sector supply response, broadening participation in growth, improving social service delivery, and strengthening public institutions. There was a strong supply response over the review period, with private investment increasing sharply, the economy diversifying into new areas, and gross domestic product (GDP) growing at nearly 7 percent a year. Poverty declined substantially, although unevenly, across Peru's three distinct geographical regions. The World Bank Group (WBG) supported each of the three pillars of the government's poverty reduction strategy, namely: (i) broad-based economic growth that engaged a higher share of the population; (ii) enhanced human development through improved social service delivery; and (iii) strengthened public sector institutions. The WBG provided US$3.9 billion in new International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) lending and International Finance Corporation (IFC) financing, along with a range of analytic and advisory services.

The World Bank in Nepal, 2003-2008 (Country Program Evaluation)

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This report evaluates International Development Association (IDA) support to Nepal during 2003-2008. IDA's overarching goal during this period was to support the Government's efforts to reduce poverty and improve human well-being. IDA focused on helping to foster broad-based growth, social development, social inclusion, and good governance. IDA was Nepal's largest development partner, providing Show MoreThis report evaluates International Development Association (IDA) support to Nepal during 2003-2008. IDA's overarching goal during this period was to support the Government's efforts to reduce poverty and improve human well-being. IDA focused on helping to foster broad-based growth, social development, social inclusion, and good governance. IDA was Nepal's largest development partner, providing 13 percent of (gross) overseas development assistance (ODA) flows during 2003-2008. Bank efforts to strengthen government ownership and leadership in development assistance coordination ran into challenges as Nepal's political situation deteriorated. Nonetheless, the Bank was able to lead or contribute to productive development partnerships. The evaluation concludes that IDA's strategy during 2003-2008 was relevant to Nepal's development needs, but that its relevance to the more immediate situation was compromised by several factors, including limited ownership of the Bank-supported government reform program, and its lack of realism with respect to political instability. IDA assistance during the review period had positive outcomes in social development and to some extent social inclusion. In contrast, the outcome of IDA support fell short of the Bank's program objectives and outcome targets in broad-based growth and governance. The low overall efficacy of IDA's assistance strategy is explained mainly by its failure to account for the country's specific circumstances. The evaluation highlights the need to introduce greater realism into the country assistance strategy, and to retain flexibility to adjust to changing circumstances. It also stresses the need to consult widely and continually with national stakeholders and development partners. In addition, it points to the importance of making agriculture and rural development central to the program. The evaluation also focuses on the significance of designing and implementing a mechanism to systematically track the impact of the Poverty Alleviation Fund and adjust its design to enhance benefits to the poor. Finally, supporting reforms in public finance management through policy-based lending or sector-wide approaches is key.

Ukraine Country Assistance Evaluation

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This Country Assistance Evaluation reports on the period from 1992 to 1998 of World Bank involvement with the Government of Ukraine and its economic transition and development efforts. Sixteen projects, a substantial economic and social sector work program and an active policy dialogue that covered moist aspects of economic life are reviewed. The report presents a synthesis of the evaluation Show MoreThis Country Assistance Evaluation reports on the period from 1992 to 1998 of World Bank involvement with the Government of Ukraine and its economic transition and development efforts. Sixteen projects, a substantial economic and social sector work program and an active policy dialogue that covered moist aspects of economic life are reviewed. The report presents a synthesis of the evaluation findings describing a comprehensive and intense country assistance program. This report ' s main conclusion is that the Bank assistance to the Ukraine has been only partially effective, and while the partnership forged with the government has helped to move the necessary transition reform agenda forward, little progress has been made in some key areas. Achieving a degree of macroeconomic stability and eliminating hyperinflation has been a notable success, although the sustainability of these advances is still somewhat uncertain. Good progress has been made in privatization, trade and price liberalization, and in strengthening the central bank. Partial progress has been made in reforming the country ' s crucial agricultural sector and focusing attention on restructuring the coal sector. Litte progress has been achieved in reforming the country ' s social safety net systems and the health and education sectors, creating financial viability in the electricity sector, or dealing with the heavy industrial sector. Poverty has increased significantly.

Cambodia Country Assistance Evaluation

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The Country Assistance Evaluation discusses the relevance of the Bank ' s assistance to Cambodia as of the early 1990s, when efforts by the Bank, and International Monetary Fund led to relative stabilization, though by and large, compressed expenditures on operations and maintenance, and on the social sectors, in addition to reneged reform programs, including public revenue and expenditure Show MoreThe Country Assistance Evaluation discusses the relevance of the Bank ' s assistance to Cambodia as of the early 1990s, when efforts by the Bank, and International Monetary Fund led to relative stabilization, though by and large, compressed expenditures on operations and maintenance, and on the social sectors, in addition to reneged reform programs, including public revenue and expenditure reforms, hindered progress. Economic performance deteriorated as of 1997, due to the regional financial crisis, political instability, and the suspension of most donor assistance. The assistance strategy framework for post-conflict countries, conformed to Cambodia ' s development objectives, consistent with the mix of non-lending, and lending services, which included economic and sector work (ESW), aid coordination, technical assistance for capacity building, structural adjustment lending, as well as agriculture, social, and infrastructure lending. However, some project design flaws, implementation delays due to political problems, weak domestic capacity, and adverse sequencing of development assistance, hampered progress, rating assistance as marginally satisfactory. This evaluation suggests macroeconomic stability, and growth be based on poverty alleviation, prioritizing on supportive tax administration, and reforms, assisting agricultural, rural, and social development, while enhancing private sector investment.