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Report/Evaluation Type:Country Focused Evaluations
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Kazakhstan Country Assistance Evaluation

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This Country Assistance Evaluation (CAE) assesses the Bank assistance to Kazakhstan, from December 1991, when the country secured its independence, to March 2000. Through adjustment lending, and some investment lending/technical assistance, the Bank supported macroeconomic stabilization, structural reform to develop competitive markets, public sector reform, and social protection, with further Show MoreThis Country Assistance Evaluation (CAE) assesses the Bank assistance to Kazakhstan, from December 1991, when the country secured its independence, to March 2000. Through adjustment lending, and some investment lending/technical assistance, the Bank supported macroeconomic stabilization, structural reform to develop competitive markets, public sector reform, and social protection, with further lending in the transport, energy, and agriculture. Additionally, investments were approved by the International Finance Corporation (IFC), namely in the financial sector. The adjustment lending was successful in promoting policy reforms, prices and trade were liberalized, and, much of the economy has been privatized. However, the severe economic, and social deterioration, led to a drop in the per capita GDP of forty percent, poverty raised, and major social indicators worsened. This rapid decline in GDP was caused by the dislocations of the early years of transition, which could not have been prevented; however, the Bank, and donor community ' s expectations were overly optimistic, in that the transition to a market economy, could be accomplished in a short time, at a low social cost. Thus, on balance, the assistance program is rated partially satisfactory, with only modest contributions to institutional development, and an uncertain sustainability. Recommendations to foster development suggest social assistance programs; public financial accountability; and, private sector development.

Burkina Faso Country Assistance Evaluation

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This Country Assistance Evaluation examines assistance to Burkina Faso during the past ten years. One of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina Faso is landlocked, with a high population growth rate and HIV prevalence, poor soil, and inadequate rainfall. Against these steep odds, International Development Association (IDA) assistance since the late 1980s has had a marginally satisfactory Show MoreThis Country Assistance Evaluation examines assistance to Burkina Faso during the past ten years. One of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina Faso is landlocked, with a high population growth rate and HIV prevalence, poor soil, and inadequate rainfall. Against these steep odds, International Development Association (IDA) assistance since the late 1980s has had a marginally satisfactory outcome, with substantial achievements in the education, urban, and transport sectors, but more mediocre performance on structural adjustment, health, and agriculture. Future IDA assistance should focus on helping to establish a framework for donor coordination, limiting population growth and AIDS, fostering private sector development and improved governance, continuing support for primary education, as well as literacy training, promoting appropriate technology for environmentally appropriate dryland agronomy, and a reorganization of the cotton sector.

Costa Rica Country Assistance Evaluation

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This Country Assistance Evaluation (CAE) assesses the Banks assistance strategy for Costa Rica, based on the influence the strategy had for the 1980s on determining the relevance, and effectiveness of the 1990s strategy. To assess this relevance, the CAE examines the diagnosis of the country ' s long-term development problems, at the time of the last Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) Board Show MoreThis Country Assistance Evaluation (CAE) assesses the Banks assistance strategy for Costa Rica, based on the influence the strategy had for the 1980s on determining the relevance, and effectiveness of the 1990s strategy. To assess this relevance, the CAE examines the diagnosis of the country ' s long-term development problems, at the time of the last Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) Board approval, in 1993, analyzing as well the objectives of the 1993 strategy, and their relationship with its lending, and non-lending instruments. Costa Rica is one of the most stable democracies in Latin America, committed to economic growth, social welfare, and the environment. Nonetheless, the country ' s economic, and social progress has been vulnerable to external shocks, and policy reform to the electoral cycle, and, high domestic debt has troubled macroeconomic management, with serious financial imbalances emerging in 1990, which led to the 1994-95 crisis, questioning the long-term viability of the Costa Rican model. The report outlines unsatisfactory strategic outcomes, and identifies initial design flaws, faulty because it included inappropriate adjustment lending instruments, and poorly designed reforms, including the passing of legislation as a condition to be met after Board approval, and before loan effectiveness. Recommendations include the preparation of a new CAS, with a continued promotion of structural reforms, and a broadened lending, and economic and sector work programs, in coordination with other bilateral/multilateral agencies.

Uruguay Country Assistance Evaluation

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This Country Assistance Evaluation concludes that the 1997 country assistance strategy (CAS) for Uruguay was based on a good diagnosis of economic, social, and political issues in the country. The strategy adequately recognized the role of other lending institutions and effectively reflected evaluation lessons. The strategy was elaborated after a period of relatively difficult dialogue that led Show MoreThis Country Assistance Evaluation concludes that the 1997 country assistance strategy (CAS) for Uruguay was based on a good diagnosis of economic, social, and political issues in the country. The strategy adequately recognized the role of other lending institutions and effectively reflected evaluation lessons. The strategy was elaborated after a period of relatively difficult dialogue that led to negative net disbursements during 1993-97, but the region has implemented a highly effective assistance strategy since then. Consequently, the results from the Bank ' s recent experience show highly satisfactory development outcome. The agenda for development, however, is still large and the economy is highly vulnerable to changes in terms of trade, capital flows, and the economic performance of Brazil and Argentina, while banking institutions are weak and poorly regulated. This vulnerability and the incomplete development agenda have led the government to be appropriately concerned with seeing a repeat of negative net disbursements in the near future. The study recommends: 1) The Bank should continue to have flexibility in the design of operations and appropriate timing of actions. 2) The CAS for fiscal year 2001-04 should continue to support access to education. 3) The CAS should continue to support private sector development and financial markets.

Ghana Country Assistance Evaluation

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The report evaluates the World Bank's assistance program in Ghana.The report evaluates the World Bank's assistance program in Ghana.

India Country Assistance Evaluation

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This evaluation assesses the development effectiveness of Bank assistance to India during the 1990s. India was one of the Bank´s founding members and remains one of its largest and most influential borrowers. The Bank has been India´s largest source of external long-term capital and has financed a sizeable share of its public investment. Its lending and non lending services have been thinly Show MoreThis evaluation assesses the development effectiveness of Bank assistance to India during the 1990s. India was one of the Bank´s founding members and remains one of its largest and most influential borrowers. The Bank has been India´s largest source of external long-term capital and has financed a sizeable share of its public investment. Its lending and non lending services have been thinly spread over many central and state agencies and have addressed many different objectives.

Egypt - Country Assistance Evaluation

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The focus of this evaluation is on the period since 1990. Until 1990, lending was concentrated on investments in industry and finance, infrastructure, power, and agriculture. Starting in 1991, the Bank's strategy shifted to policy-based lending in support of Egypt's reform program. Lending in the 1990s has been concentrated on social funds, education, health, and rural development. The Bank's Show MoreThe focus of this evaluation is on the period since 1990. Until 1990, lending was concentrated on investments in industry and finance, infrastructure, power, and agriculture. Starting in 1991, the Bank's strategy shifted to policy-based lending in support of Egypt's reform program. Lending in the 1990s has been concentrated on social funds, education, health, and rural development. The Bank's impact on the reform program was primarily through the Structural Adjustment Loan, the Structural Adjustment Monitoring Program and support for Paris Club debt reductions. The assistance has had a satisfactory and likely sustainable outcome, but one important gap has been the absence of work on a strategy to alleviate poverty. At a sectoral level, results have been mixed. Irrigation and drainage and the social fund have had good outcomes, although the sustainability of the social fund is uncertain; in power and industry, the outcome of recent Bank assistance has been unsatisfactory. Bank assistance to Egypt has been more costly than in other countries because of the high cost of dropped projects. Overall, taking into account macroeconomic and sectoral activities, the outcome of Bank assistance in the 1990s is rated as marginally satisfactory, with uncertain sustainability and modest institutional support.

Azerbaijan Country Assistance Evaluation

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Papua New Guinea - Country Assistance Evaluation

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The report reviews Papua New Guinea's economic and social development in the 1990s and provides a Country Assistance Evaluation on the Bank's contribution to development. Although the Bank helped restore stability in the short term, it was unable to help improve fiscal management. A number of positive steps were taken to improve the nonmineral sector, but a hesitant progress hindered improvements Show MoreThe report reviews Papua New Guinea's economic and social development in the 1990s and provides a Country Assistance Evaluation on the Bank's contribution to development. Although the Bank helped restore stability in the short term, it was unable to help improve fiscal management. A number of positive steps were taken to improve the nonmineral sector, but a hesitant progress hindered improvements in nonmineral production. The process toward social improvement was a difficult one, with only some contributions in education, while poor sector management and weak fiscal policy constrained progress. The Bank stimulated the use of natural resources through positive contributions in the forestry sector, but Bank support requires a high level of ownership of forestry reforms to be effective; sustainability remains uncertain. Building institutional capacity requires effective civil service reform efforts, and although the Bank acknowledged this need, its approach was inadequate. The performance assessment is unsatisfactory due to lost opportunities to accelerate development despite the inflow of mineral revenues and substantial financial and advisory services. Lessons and recommendations suggest the provision of sustained nonlending services and collaboration toward a long-term strategy within the Comprehensive Development Framework.

Malawi - Country Assistance Evaluation

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This Country Assistance Evaluation on Malawi, reviews the Bank ' s assistance between 1991-1997, and discusses the efficacy of its assistance, questioning the effectiveness of macroeconomic policies, and of changes in production, to reflect on broader, more sustainable growth, and poverty reduction. Despite a decade of adjustment, Malawi showed minimal progress by the early 1990s, namely due to Show MoreThis Country Assistance Evaluation on Malawi, reviews the Bank ' s assistance between 1991-1997, and discusses the efficacy of its assistance, questioning the effectiveness of macroeconomic policies, and of changes in production, to reflect on broader, more sustainable growth, and poverty reduction. Despite a decade of adjustment, Malawi showed minimal progress by the early 1990s, namely due to the absence of real change in production structures. The dualistic agriculture sector, in which large estates produced export crops, while small-holders subsistence maize, was largely the remnant of structured price controls, and regulatory restrictions, and, on the other hand, limited industrial production, was due to the constant macroeconomic instability, unattractive investment regulations, poor infrastructure, limited access to finance, and a poor competitive environment, which constrained private activity. The Bank assistance strategy as of the 1990s, aimed at maintaining macroeconomic stability, stimulating private sector activity, while diversifying agriculture. However, adverse external shocks affected strategy implementation, aggravated by unwilling governments to address adversity, limiting results from the Bank ' s assistance. Current emerging progress is substantiated by committed governments, supportive of poverty reduction strategies, though reforms, and institutional weakness calls for attention.