Back to cover

World Bank Support to Reducing Child Undernutrition


Behavior change interventions. Interventions that engage changes agents (such as frontline workers, opinion leaders, and households) and mothers and primary caregivers to shift behaviors to influence determinants of nutrition.

Behavior change results chain. The delineation of levels along a results chain (engage-learn-apply-sustain) that lead from initial inputs and outputs all the way to sustained behavior change that could be expected to persist after interventions are completed.

Core nutrition project. A project with an explicit focus on nutrition in its objectives or title and a heavy focus on supporting nutrition interventions.

Institutional strengthening support. Support to strengthen nutrition-related stakeholder engagement and ownership, policy, financing, and coordination, and service delivery.

Multidimensional portfolio. This describes the inclusion of a mix of nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions in the World Bank’s nutrition portfolio or portfolio of support in a country.

Multidimensional project. These are projects that include a mix of nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions that are inherently implemented by different sectors.

Multisectoral nutrition support. This refers to World Bank nutrition support that involves multiple World Bank Global Practices to support sector-focused nutrition interventions.

Noncore project. Projects that do not have an explicit focus on nutrition in their title or objectives and integrate nutrition interventions in their components.

Nutrition determinants. There are immediate and underlying nutrition determinants. Immediate determinants of child nutrition relate to caregiving practices, dietary intake or diversity, and the health status of the mother and child. It is not possible to realize these factors when communities lack adequate access to underlying determinants of nutrition, including nutrient-rich food, caregiving resources, health services, and water, sanitation, and hygiene.

Nutrition results. Projects can improve underlying determinants (nutrient-rich food, caregiving resources, health services, and water, sanitation, and hygiene); immediate determinants (child feeding practices, diet diversity, and maternal and child health); social norms (women’s empowerment and early marriage and pregnancy); and institutional strengthening, and to a lesser extent nutrition outcomes (anthropometric measures and micronutrients deficiencies).

Nutrition-sensitive interventions. These are interventions, such as cash transfers, water, sanitation and hygiene approaches, girls’ education, and food system improvements, that are expected to address the underlying determinants of nutrition.

Nutrition-specific interventions. These are interventions, such as adolescent nutrition, maternal nutrition, breastfeeding support, micronutrient supplementation, child disease prevention, and management and treatment of undernutrition, that are expected to influence the immediate determinants of nutrition.

Social norms interventions. These are interventions that address social norms relating to early marriage, early pregnancy, birth spacing, and women’s empowerment (decision-making regarding childcare, food production, health care seeking) to influence nutrition determinants.