Recent literature identifies a strong link between poverty and indigenous peoples and finds that many live in extreme poverty—measured as living on less than US$1.90 a day. Indigenous peoples have lower levels of employment, living standards, health, and housing. Geographic isolation, linguistic barriers, and lack of political representation affect education and employment opportunities for Indigenous peoples. Despite these challenges, Indigenous communities are highly resilient. A recent study of 15 Indigenous communities across Central America identified their natural, cultural, and social capital as critical factors that contributed to their ability to face extreme climate events and the COVID-19 pandemic. 

This EIN was guided by the overall question: What can we learn from the past operations of the World Bank for working with Indigenous peoples who live in poverty? 

The EIN includes five main insights:

Evaluation Reports Collection