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Mozambique Country Program Evaluation (Approach Paper)

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Mozambique’s recent history is characterized by economic growth, rising inequality, and fragility. After the end of a civil war in 1992, Mozambique enjoyed a sustained period of growth until 2014, positioning it as one of the fastest-growing countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Such growth, however, was not broadly shared and inequality increased. Fragility in Mozambique traces back to the uneven Show MoreMozambique’s recent history is characterized by economic growth, rising inequality, and fragility. After the end of a civil war in 1992, Mozambique enjoyed a sustained period of growth until 2014, positioning it as one of the fastest-growing countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Such growth, however, was not broadly shared and inequality increased. Fragility in Mozambique traces back to the uneven historical development of the state, in part shaped by geographical characteristics, and to the nature of the political settlement and the exclusionary political arrangements that it maintains. This evaluation seeks to assess the World Bank Group’s success at helping Mozambique address challenges that constrain its development. The evaluation will cover fiscal years (FY)08–21 and is timed to inform Mozambique’s next Country Partnership Framework (CPF). The evaluation will assess the Bank Group’s support for addressing three development challenges and drivers of fragility in Mozambique: (i) rural poverty linked to weak agricultural productivity and regional inequalities; (ii) weak institutions and governance; and (iii) vulnerability to natural disasters and climate change.

Towards Productive, Inclusive, and Sustainable Farms and Agribusiness Firms: An Evaluation of the World Bank Group’s Support for Development of Agri-Food Economies (2010-2020) – Approach Paper

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Sustainable development of the agricultural sector and the associated agrifood industry is key to ending hunger and poverty and meeting other global goals, such as those related to climate change. Fostering broad-based agricultural development requires transforming agrifood systems because of their critical role in economic growth, employment, and sustainable agricultural development. The World Show MoreSustainable development of the agricultural sector and the associated agrifood industry is key to ending hunger and poverty and meeting other global goals, such as those related to climate change. Fostering broad-based agricultural development requires transforming agrifood systems because of their critical role in economic growth, employment, and sustainable agricultural development. The World Bank Group has been a major supporter of previous efforts to develop agriculture and the broader agrifood system economies. The objective of the evaluation is to assess how well the World Bank Group identifies the needs, addresses the constraints, and achieves results in supporting agrifood system development, defined as the development of more productive, inclusive, and sustainable farms and agribusiness firms. More specifically, the evaluation aims to (i) assess the relevance of the World Bank Group in identifying and addressing the key AFS development challenges of raising productivity, improving inclusion and reducing environmental sustainability threats especially from climate change; (ii) assess the effectiveness of World Bank Group support in making AFS more productive, inclusive, and sustainable; and (iii) identify lessons of experience, success factors, and constraints on effectiveness.

Four Lessons from the Sahel on Land Restoration Programs and their Impact on Vulnerable Populations

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Four Lessons from the Sahel on Land Restoration Programs and their Impact on Vulnerable Populations
World Bank Group support to developing countries to manage their natural resources is critical for poverty reduction. A recent IEG evaluation assessed how well the World Bank has addressed natural resource degradation to reduce the vulnerabilities of resource-dependent people. On Desertification and Drought Day, we present the following four lessons drawn from IEG's assessment of World Bank Show MoreWorld Bank Group support to developing countries to manage their natural resources is critical for poverty reduction. A recent IEG evaluation assessed how well the World Bank has addressed natural resource degradation to reduce the vulnerabilities of resource-dependent people. On Desertification and Drought Day, we present the following four lessons drawn from IEG's assessment of World Bank support for the Great Green Wall. Decades ago, several African Heads of State envisioned, and eventually lent their support to, the development of a Great Green Wall: a large belt of trees that stretches across twelve states of the Sahel. The concept of the Great Green Wall was developed to combat land degradation and desertification of the Sahel, a concept that has grown in importance as the threats posed by climate change intensify. Twenty-one African countries have signed on to the initiative, along with at least 11 international partners; including the African Union, European Union, and the World Bank.    These are four key lessons that can inform future investments in the Great Green Wall:   1. A precise understanding of the change in vegetation cover across the Sahel, attributable to donor investments in the Great Green Wall, has been limited because of an underinvestment in measurement. Earth observations combined with site observations show that the World Bank’s support for the Great Green Wall has been successful. Vegetation has been successfully established, land has been rehabilitated, and the density of trees and shrubs have increased dramatically at rehabilitation sites. However, projects did not implement measurement mechanisms to establish how much of the increase of vegetation can be attributed to donor programs versus other important variables including changing rainfall.   Watch: Discussion on the role of increased rainfall on the greening of the Sahel and the need for sustainable practices with professor Matt Turner, from the Department of Geology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Oumarou Moumouni, member of the development NGO Groupe de Recherche, d'Etudes d'Action pour le Développement in Niger.  {"preview_thumbnail":"/sites/default/files/Data/styles/video_embed_wysiwyg_preview/public/video_thumbnails/9D0oF2fUcu4.jpg?itok=BZuE1M4A","video_url":"https://youtu.be/9D0oF2fUcu4","settings":{"responsive":0,"width":"854","height":"480","autoplay":0},"settings_summary":["Embedded Video (854x480)."]} 2. Land management practices that seek to restore degraded land can run the risk of exacerbating vulnerability. Just prior to the coronavirus pandemic, there were 30 million food insecure people in the Sahel. This large cohort consists of farmers, agro-pastoral, and nomadic populations – all of whom engage in traditional land-use arrangements that provide mutual food and livelihood benefits. In these settings, even the most degraded land has value: these are important areas of passage and grazing for livestock, particularly during the rainy season, and are sources of wild plants and wood gathered by women. But the use of area enclosures – a land management practice that seeks to restore degraded land by excluding livestock and humans from openly accessing it in the short to medium term – runs the risk of exacerbating vulnerability; and in the absence of good land governance, possibly causing harm  Watch: IEG’s evaluation analyst Joy Butscher explains some of the impacts of land management practices on pastoral populations.   {"preview_thumbnail":"/sites/default/files/Data/styles/video_embed_wysiwyg_preview/public/video_thumbnails/n_vBYKCnMkA.jpg?itok=hb5_7ceT","video_url":"https://youtu.be/n_vBYKCnMkA","settings":{"responsive":0,"width":"854","height":"480","autoplay":0},"settings_summary":["Embedded Video (854x480)."]} 3. Increasing the value of degraded land can lead to predation by elites and to encroachment by non-traditional farmers, which risks displacing the local population.   Such was the case in Niger, where land was effectively restored, but where parcels were also sold outside of the community, in areas that lacked good land governance. Predation also occurs as a result of decisions to support crop agriculture alongside tree planting. While land restoration activities took place on communal land, the introduction of “inter cropping” facilitated individualized claims on community land. Projects should be designed with an understanding of customary, flexible tenure arrangements and the coping strategies of vulnerable resource users who access degraded lands as a social safety net.  Importantly, that emphasis should be placed on ensuring that clear, enforceable land-use agreements are in place prior to land restoration activities, to protect the land-use rights of the most vulnerable.  Watch: Professor Matt Turner, from the Department of Geology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, on land governance in Niger. {"preview_thumbnail":"/sites/default/files/Data/styles/video_embed_wysiwyg_preview/public/video_thumbnails/xGRxN2Gb0tU.jpg?itok=eRlfPMp2","video_url":"https://youtu.be/xGRxN2Gb0tU","settings":{"responsive":0,"width":"854","height":"480","autoplay":0},"settings_summary":["Embedded Video (854x480)."]}  4. Because land restoration mainly benefits those that have access to land, some women and youth are especially disadvantaged in the Sahel.   In Niger, a very large number of women are forced to fend for themselves and their families because their husbands and sons have migrated to other West African countries to look for work. Projects that support land and resource restoration can ensure that women and youth benefit by addressing participation barriers, linked to social and cultural norms. For example, since in some conservative areas, some women’s participation in cash for work programs is prohibited, programs must propose alternative income generating options to ensure equity.  Watch: Oumou Moumouni, from the UN Office for the Coordination of Human Affairs speaks of the disadvantages women face in the Sahel. {"preview_thumbnail":"/sites/default/files/Data/styles/video_embed_wysiwyg_preview/public/video_thumbnails/TyL0DXPV2LA.jpg?itok=Vo1IqiJT","video_url":"https://youtu.be/TyL0DXPV2LA","settings":{"responsive":0,"width":"854","height":"480","autoplay":0},"settings_summary":["Embedded Video (854x480)."]}   Photo credit:  Rafe H Andrews, Dawning

Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) Work Program and Budget (FY22) and Indicative Plan (FY23-24)

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IEG adapted its work program to align with the rapid adjustment of the WBG’s strategic priorities to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. At the same time, IEG will continue to keep a line of sight to other emerging and longstanding corporate priorities including the IDA 20 special themes and cross-cutting areas, climate change ambition, concerns on debt sustainability, the Green, Resilient, Show MoreIEG adapted its work program to align with the rapid adjustment of the WBG’s strategic priorities to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. At the same time, IEG will continue to keep a line of sight to other emerging and longstanding corporate priorities including the IDA 20 special themes and cross-cutting areas, climate change ambition, concerns on debt sustainability, the Green, Resilient, Inclusive Development (GRID) framework, the new WBG knowledge framework and the outcome orientation agenda. IEG will also continue its efforts to create a diverse and inclusive workplace, aligned with the corporate priority on Ending Racism.

Building a path for the clean energy transition: Lessons from World Bank support for renewable energy

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Manik, a solar pump operator for Nusra works near the solar panels in Rohertek, Bangladesh on October 12, 2016. Nusra is an NGO working to bring solar irrigation to farmers and solar home systems to families in Rohertek. Photo: © Dominic Chavez/World Bank
The ongoing dominance of fossil fuels in global energy production accounts for more than 60% of overall greenhouse gas emissions. The Clean Energy Transition —the pathway for decarbonizing global energy— is essential for addressing climate change and will also provide a key means for the poor to access affordable, reliable, clean electricity. The transition will be central to achieving both the Show MoreThe ongoing dominance of fossil fuels in global energy production accounts for more than 60% of overall greenhouse gas emissions. The Clean Energy Transition —the pathway for decarbonizing global energy— is essential for addressing climate change and will also provide a key means for the poor to access affordable, reliable, clean electricity. The transition will be central to achieving both the goals of the Paris Climate Accords and key elements of the Sustainable Development Goals, and experts agree that Renewable Energy (RE) has a vital role to play in the Clean Energy transition. The Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) recently released its first systematic assessment of World Bank Group support for the supply of electricity from renewable energy. The evaluation looked at the evolution and the outcomes of the Bank Group’s approach from 2000 to 2017, and how well it helped developing countries address the myriad obstacles in the way of adopting renewable energy and seizing the opportunities presented by advances in RE  technology, ranging from battery storage to solar and wind technology to system planning and integration of renewables. In short, the World Bank Group has an important role to play. It is the single largest global contributor to RE in developing countries, where it is forecast that 70% of the required scale up in RE to meet the Clean Energy Transition goals will take place. The Bank Group’s role in the development of RE extends beyond its financing, with support such as policy advice to create the right environment for RE scale up and the convening of partners to mobilize financing and technical support also having an  important impact. Based on lessons drawn from almost two decades of Bank Group interventions, IEG has identified three key recommendations for leveraging the Bank Group’s comparative advantages to maximize the impact of its support for RE. Recommendation 1: Focus on integration of renewable energy into the grid  The technical advances and the falling costs of wind power and solar photovoltaic present significant opportunities, but to seize them will require overcoming a common challenge presented by these RE technologies. They are variable because wind power only generates electricity when the wind is blowing, and solar photovoltaic only works when the sun is shining.  Countries will need to adapt their power systems to cope with these variable sources of electricity.  Variable sources of power are projected to have the largest role in the RE scale-up, and the share of wind and solar photovoltaic in Bank Group RE projects has surged in line with global trends.  Integrating these variable sources of power into the grid to expand the power supply and replace higher carbon alternatives requires robust power system planning, adequate grid codes and standards for grid-friendly equipment, stronger and expanded transmission infrastructure to reach the often remote locations of RE installations, and the deployment of batteries or other storage technologies to convert variable sources of power into  a continuous supply to the grid, known as base-load power.    Hydropower, which represented US$1 billion of the Bank Group’s US$4.5 billion RE portfolio from financial years 2018 to 2020, has the advantage of being able to store ‘fuel’. By building a reservoir along with the hydropower dam, water can be stored and released to generate more electricity when the grid calls for it. This flexibility can be used to balance the load on the grid and compensate for the intermittency of solar photovoltaic and wind power. However, the scale of hydropower projects with storage are typically more complex to develop and can have greater environmental and social challenges. The Bank Group is supporting a decreasing number of large-scale hydropower projects with storage, with a shift to smaller-scale projects that rely solely on the flow of river water. In view of its track record as a dependable replacement for fossil fuels and its role in meeting the integration challenge, attention to developing hydropower with storage that meets high environmental and social standards should be a priority. IEG found that less than 7% of the Bank Group RE portfolio in the evaluation period focused on integrating RE into power systems. With notable exceptions, such as the power system planning support to Egypt to develop its wind power, the majority of Bank Group projects focused primarily on addressing policy and regulatory barriers. While the latter is critical, developing countries will need support to meet the integration challenge to take advantage of the rapid expansion of wind power and solar photovoltaic.  Both China and Nicaragua had ambitious plans to expand wind power, and both faltered over lack of power systems planning to ensure the grid could handle the expanded source of intermittent power. The Bank Group is helping both countries address this issue, and lessons from experience should help guide similar integration challenges in other countries. Recommendation 2: Take comprehensive approaches to addressing the barriers to RE  IEG found that RE development proved more successful when the Bank Group engaged systematically over time, strengthening its relationships, and progressively and comprehensively helping countries implement the necessary reforms to remove barriers to RE development. These barriers include the right policies and regulatory environment to encourage the development of RE, power systems capable of integrating variable sources of power, the capacities to undertake new investments in RE and operate ongoing projects, and the ability to create the right environment to attract investors and mobilize the high up-front investments needed for RE. The Bank Group can build on the comparative advantages its constituent institutions to provide the kind of comprehensive support that addresses multiple barriers. While the World Bank  can utilize its lending and technical advisory capacity to focus  on RE policies and integration, the Bank Group’s private sector arm, the International Finance Corporation (IFC) can work on  mobilizing  private capital and promoting the adoption of environmental and social performance  standards and mechanisms for scaling-up, and the Bank Group’s risk guarantee agency, the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency can further extend its risk mitigation portfolio to cover a wider range of RE technologies. This coordinated and comprehensive support can have a significant impact. In 2002, the World Bank and IFC coordinated to rehabilitate the Pamir hydropower plant in the very poor Badakhshan region of eastern Tajikistan, mobilizing private finance and development partners for the first private investment in the country’s energy sector.  Following the collapse of the region’s diesel plant, the local population in Badakshan had been forced to resort to wood as fuel, schools and other public institutions closed during the winter, and indoor pollution rose as economic activity stalled. The Pamir hydropower plant now ensures 96% of households in Badakhshan enjoy 24 hours of electricity per day, all year-round. Recommendation 3: Keep Bank Group knowledge and skills up to date While there have been notable successes, keeping up with the dynamic nature of RE requires cutting-edge knowledge. It is important for the Bank Group to keep its knowledge up to date of technological changes and the evolving nature of policy and regulatory requirements on RE overall and specifically on integration, including storage and distributed generation, as well as financial structuring skills to mobilize private capital investment in RE. This will require constantly updating knowledge on issues ranging from power systems planning to pricing policy and procurement. Conclusion There are a range of studies that propose different pathways to the Clean Energy Transition, but they are unanimous in calling for a momentous expansion of RE. The Bank Group has an important role to play in working with developing countries to achieve this goal. To maximize the impact of Bank Group support, IEG recommends prioritizing interventions that focus on integrating RE sources into power systems, as part of comprehensive, long-term country engagements, with coordinated Bank Group solutions, backed by specialized skills that are continually updated to help developing countries address their pressing and rapidly evolving challenges to scale-up RE.   Read IEG’s Evaluation of the World Bank Group’s support for electricity supply from renewable energy resources, 2000–2017 Pictured above: Manik, a solar pump operator for Nusra works near the solar panels in Rohertek, Bangladesh on October 12, 2016. Nusra is an NGO working to bring solar irrigation to farmers and solar home systems to families in Rohertek. Photo: © Dominic Chavez/World Bank

From the Great Wall of Trees to Sustainable Management of Landscapes

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IEG visit to Weinalem Watershed in Raya Azebo, Tigray Regional State, Ethiopia, Oct 2019, Photo credit: Bekele Shiferaw
Lessons from Watershed Management Programs in Africa Lessons from Watershed Management Programs in Africa

Jamaica: Rural Economic Development Initiative (PPAR)

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The national poverty rate in Jamaica declined over the two decades prior to appraisal, but rural poverty remained stubbornly high. The Government of Jamaica recognized that if the country was to achieve its goal of “Developed World” status, as indicated in the Government’s Vision 2030 plan, economic development in rural areas needed to keep pace with that experienced in urban areas. In 2008, the Show MoreThe national poverty rate in Jamaica declined over the two decades prior to appraisal, but rural poverty remained stubbornly high. The Government of Jamaica recognized that if the country was to achieve its goal of “Developed World” status, as indicated in the Government’s Vision 2030 plan, economic development in rural areas needed to keep pace with that experienced in urban areas. In 2008, the Government requested World Bank support for a project that would promote rural economic development and income generation by improving access to markets for small-holder farmers and by encouraging rural tourism development. Unusual among the Bank’s productive alliance projects, the present project sought to combine both agriculture and tourism, reflecting the unique circumstances of Jamaica’s rural landscape and the potential for agriculture to engage more with the tourism sector, a major contributor to foreign currency receipts. The Bank also determined that the rural agriculture and tourism sectors offered the most significant potential for rural growth and development. The resulting Bank project, the Rural Economic Development Initiative (REDI), was designed to stimulate rural economic growth and increase rural incomes. Ratings for the Rural Economic Development Initiative are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Overall efficacy was substantial, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Quality of monitoring and evaluation was negligible. This assessment offers the following issues: (i) For complex productive alliance projects involving the selection of multiple rural subprojects and the introduction of new private-sector market concepts to rural communities, substantial investment to ensure project implementation readiness during project preparation can contribute to a faster and more effective project start. (ii) For productive alliance projects introducing modern technologies and new business management practices into rural populations, ensuring adequate skills and capacity in the implementing agencies will enhance the achievement of results. (iii) Technical assistance supporting private sector market approaches can be critical for linking rural agricultural and tourism operations to new and evolving markets.

Scaling the Great Green Wall?

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View of the Fada Great Green Wall site, showing millet farms in the middle of acacia plantations. Credit: Nick Parisse, Dawning
As the recent One Planet Summit pivoted international attention to issues around climate and the protection of ecosystems, global leaders were eager to point to examples of successful efforts to protect and restore nature. While many efforts to stem environmental destruction have failed – and failed spectacularly – one effort, the project to plant trees across the Sahel known as the Great Green Show MoreAs the recent One Planet Summit pivoted international attention to issues around climate and the protection of ecosystems, global leaders were eager to point to examples of successful efforts to protect and restore nature. While many efforts to stem environmental destruction have failed – and failed spectacularly – one effort, the project to plant trees across the Sahel known as the Great Green Wall, has achieved many of its envisioned technical and environmental goals. But while there is much talk of taking this successful ecosystem protection effort to scale, backed by announcements at the summit of new investments totaling US$14 billion, there is a need to learn much more about the science behind the initiative, its differentiated impacts and their costs; including the social impacts on the resource-dependent poor. Along with the achievements, there are valuable lessons to be learned about what is working and for whom that can help guide the planned scale-up. The Great Green Wall and the World Bank Decades ago, several African Heads of State envisioned, and eventually lent their support to, the development of a Great Green Wall: a large belt of trees that stretches across twelve states of the Sahel. The concept of the Great Green Wall was developed to combat land degradation and desertification of the Sahel, a concept that has grown in importance as the threats posed by climate change intensify. Twenty-one African countries have signed on to the initiative, along with at least 11 international partners; including the African Union, European Union, and the World Bank. The World Bank has played a contributing role over the past two decades through the Sahel and West Africa Program in Support of the Great Green Wall Initiative (SAWAP), a programmatic approach using $1.2 billion from World Bank projects and $106 million of Global Environment Facility financing “to expand sustainable land and water management in targeted landscapes and in climate vulnerable areas in twelve West African and Sahelian countries”. The Independent Evaluation Group has evaluated a number of the projects under the SAWAP umbrella, including in Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Ethiopia, Mali, Niger and Togo. Some of these evaluations included site visits and extensive discussions with government counterparts and local community members to deepen understanding of the overall impact of the Great Green Wall project and Bank support for it. Our findings point to some important issues to consider when designing future projects. {"preview_thumbnail":"/sites/default/files/Data/styles/video_embed_wysiwyg_preview/public/video_thumbnails/CtzIkAJJubA.jpg?itok=V0fim1IG","video_url":"https://youtu.be/CtzIkAJJubA","settings":{"responsive":0,"width":"854","height":"480","autoplay":1},"settings_summary":["Embedded Video (854x480, autoplaying)."]} The World Bank’s support for the Great Green Wall has been successful from a technical perspective. Earth observations (satellite imagery, drone footage) combined with site observations support this view. Vegetation has been successfully established, land has been rehabilitated through large commitments of labor for soil works, and the density of trees and shrubs have increased dramatically at rehabilitation sites (although observations at older rehabilitation sites suggest that these technical successes may be short-lived, due to limited funds for upkeep and necessary maintenance). Most notable amongst these positive effects is the large swaths of degraded land that have been reclaimed in critical watersheds in Ethiopia. However, a precise understanding of the change in vegetation cover across the Sahel, attributable to donor investments in the Great Green Wall, has been limited because of an underinvestment in measurement (e.g. a normalized difference vegetative index to measure the change in vegetation, recommended through a regional project by the World Bank at the beginning of the SAWAP, was never implemented). And, importantly, none of the World Bank projects estimated the effect of changing rainfall patterns on the greening effects. The misestimation of the role of rainfall variability as the key parameter affecting vegetative cover and agronomic productivity has a long history in the African drylands. Many unqualified statements have and continue to attribute Sahelian greening entirely to the actions of farmers. But in a region grappling with food insecurity, persistent violent conflict, and rural poverty, environmental gains supported by investments in the Great Green Wall must also benefit the poor. Just prior to the coronavirus pandemic, there were 30 million food insecure people in the Sahel, and that number continues to grow. This large cohort consists of farmers, agro-pastoral, and nomadic populations – all of whom engage in traditional land-use arrangements that provide mutual food and livelihood benefits. In these settings, even the most degraded land has value: these are important areas of passage and grazing for livestock, particularly during the rainy season, and are sources of wild plants and wood gathered by women. But the use of area enclosures – a land management practice that seeks to restore degraded land by excluding livestock and humans from openly accessing it in the short to medium term – runs the risk of exacerbating vulnerability; and in the absence of good land governance, possibly causing harm. Some policymakers point to the possibility of benefits “trickling down”, but given the very moderate economic benefits of many of the SAWAP projects, that is unlikely to play out. Increasing the value of degraded land, as was done by the Great Green Wall initiative, changes the decision-making calculation of land users – with enhanced farm value, these lands can be predated upon by elites, and can lead to encroachment by non-traditional farmers which risks displacing the local population. Such was the case in sites visited by IEG in Niger, where land was effectively restored, but where parcels were also sold outside of the community, in areas that lacked good land governance. Predation also occurs as a result of decisions to support crop agriculture alongside tree planting. While land restoration activities took place on communal land, the introduction of “inter cropping” facilitated individualized claims on community land. A lesson learned is that such projects should be designed with an understanding of customary, flexible tenure arrangements and the coping strategies of vulnerable resource users who access degraded lands as a social safety net. And, importantly, that emphasis should be placed on ensuring that clear, enforceable land-use agreements are in place prior to land restoration activities, to protect the land-use rights of the most vulnerable. Because land restoration mainly benefits those that have access to land, some women and youth are especially disadvantaged in the Sahel. In Niger, a very large number of women are forced to fend for themselves and their families because their husbands and sons have migrated to other West African countries, such as Nigeria, Côte d’Ivoire and Senegal, to look for work. This migration is often associated with a lack of access to arable land, especially for male youth. Projects that support land and resource restoration can ensure that women and youth benefit by addressing participation barriers, linked to social and cultural norms. For example, since in some conservative areas, some women’s participation in cash for work programs is prohibited, programs must propose alternative income generating options to ensure equity. The Great Green Wall has proved to be an effective approach to reclaiming land in a region coping with disproportionate impacts of climate change. Yet rather than delivering social benefits, the planned scale up could run the risk of increasing communal tensions without careful attention paid to unintended consequences. Evidence on the impacts of the investments on both the land and communities needs to be studied carefully as a first step to ensuring the Great Green Wall leads to equitable, inclusive and sustainable development.     Stakeholder interviews in Niger were conducted in collaboration with DAWNING. Pictured at top: View of the Fada GGW site, showing millet farms in the middle of acacia plantations. Credit: Nick Parisse, Dawning

Jamaica: Hurricane Dean Emergency Recovery Loan (PPAR)

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Jamaica is highly exposed to natural disasters. The negative impacts on economic development and social well-being are exacerbated as approximately 82 percent of Jamaica’s population lives within 5 kilometers of the coast, increasing the relative vulnerability of residents, major infrastructure, and the housing stock. Hurricane Dean made landfall in Jamaica on August 19, 2007, causing economic Show MoreJamaica is highly exposed to natural disasters. The negative impacts on economic development and social well-being are exacerbated as approximately 82 percent of Jamaica’s population lives within 5 kilometers of the coast, increasing the relative vulnerability of residents, major infrastructure, and the housing stock. Hurricane Dean made landfall in Jamaica on August 19, 2007, causing economic losses of roughly $329 million. The hurricane resulted in significant and extensive damage to primary and early childhood schools, community-based health clinics, and parochial and agricultural feeder roads in directly impacted parishes. In the aftermath of the hurricane, Jamaica’s Ministry of Finance confirmed that the recovery would require financial support from multiple sources, both national and international. In that context, the government of Jamaica approached the World Bank to support reconstruction works in poor communities affected by Hurricane Dean. The general aim was the reestablishment of prehurricane living conditions in these communities through the implementation of specific local infrastructure projects that would directly improve the conditions of the most vulnerable populations. Given the ongoing emergency, the World Bank and the government of Jamaica agreed to sign an emergency recovery loan to expedite the disbursement of resources. Additionally, the World Bank and the government of Jamaica agreed that the Jamaica Social Investment Fund (JSIF) would be the implementing agency. Ratings for the Hurricane Dean Emergency Recovery Loan are as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from this project include: (i) Using existing agencies with a proven track record can be an effective approach for implementing emergency response projects. (ii) When designing rehabilitation works, close consultation with users can ensure the provision of better services. (iii) Expectations need to be managed as there are limits to how much progress can be made on disaster risk reduction or emergency preparedness under an emergency operation.

Evaluation of the World Bank Group’s support for electricity supply from renewable energy resources, 2000–2017

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Pictured above: Ain Beni Mathar Integrated Combined Cycle Thermo-Solar Power Plant. Photo credit: Dana Smillie / World Bank
This evaluation assesses the performance of the World Bank Group (WBG) in its support to electricity production from renewable energy resources in client countries over the period 2000 to 2017.This evaluation assesses the performance of the World Bank Group (WBG) in its support to electricity production from renewable energy resources in client countries over the period 2000 to 2017.