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Georgia: Secondary and Local Roads Project and Kakheti Regional Roads Improvement Project (PPAR)

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Trade is important for Georgia’s economy, and good transport links are essential to promote and sustain it. Roads are the main mode of transport in the country. Therefore, upgrading and managing roads adequately is vital to sustained economic growth. These two projects were the first World Bank projects that focused on secondary and local roads in the country. Previous operations focused on Show MoreTrade is important for Georgia’s economy, and good transport links are essential to promote and sustain it. Roads are the main mode of transport in the country. Therefore, upgrading and managing roads adequately is vital to sustained economic growth. These two projects were the first World Bank projects that focused on secondary and local roads in the country. Previous operations focused on highways and other transport modes. Secondary and local roads both support the country’s economy by providing access to agriculture areas and tourism sites and are important to improving people’s living standards by facilitating access to markets and services, for example. The key finding of this Project Performance Assessment Report is that the two projects contributed to improved road management in Georgia linked to strong government commitment and continuous World Bank support, though results were limited for certain project components mainly because of design and implementation shortcomings. Ratings for the Secondary and Local Roads Project are as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was moderate. Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Kakheti Regional Roads Improvement Project ratings are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was modest, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. This assessment offers the following key lessons of experience: (i) It is impossible to implement a holistic road safety approach through a small, regional project without the formal involvement of key road safety stakeholders, (ii) A sustained engagement on road safety over time can help transform the road safety culture in a country, (iii) Upgrading a road that is barely passable can make it less safe despite the implementation of road safety engineering measures. (iv) Measuring improved road safety resulting from project interventions requires a carefully designed approach. (v) The successful introduction of performance-based maintenance and rehabilitation contracts requires contractors to be aware of the paradigm shift such contracts imply to avoid financial losses.

Myanmar – Completion and Learning Report : IEG Review

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This review of the World Bank Group’s (WBG) Completion and Learning Review (CLR) covers the period of the Country Partnership Framework (CPF), FY15-FY17, and updated in the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) dated June 2, 2017, which extended the CPF period by two years to FY19. This CPF followed the end-2012 Interim Strategy Note (ISN) that resumed WBG operations after a hiatus of about 25 Show MoreThis review of the World Bank Group’s (WBG) Completion and Learning Review (CLR) covers the period of the Country Partnership Framework (CPF), FY15-FY17, and updated in the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) dated June 2, 2017, which extended the CPF period by two years to FY19. This CPF followed the end-2012 Interim Strategy Note (ISN) that resumed WBG operations after a hiatus of about 25 years. To support the Government’s development efforts, the WBG implemented a major expansion of its activities (a seven-fold increase in the Bank’s portfolio), possibly beyond what the country could absorb. Nevertheless, this support contributed to good progress on farming productivity; on access to electricity, telecommunications, health, education, and finance; and on the business climate. IEG agrees with the lessons drawn by the CLR. These are reformulated and summarized as follows: (i) In an environment of constrained implementation capacity, projects with diverse objectives and multiple implementing agencies may become unwieldy and lead to delays in project implementation. (ii) A results framework that excludes the program’s cross-cutting issues will impede assessment of success in addressing these issues. (iii) Use of country systems, support of key reform champions, and joint analytical work are among the factors that build trust with counterparts and stakeholders. (iv) Access to and coordination of trust fund resources will encourage effective implementation and collaboration across development partners. (v) Good and timely data is critical for evidence-based policy dialogue and timely response to country developments. (vi) A “one WBG” approach is critical to leverage WBG instruments toward specific objectives such as access to electricity. Seventh, more careful attention to indicators, including their sources, baselines, targets and time frames will facilitate program monitoring. (vii) A “disconnect’ between written implementation rules and actual practices in Myanmar, e.g., on procurement, may cause implementation delays. IEG adds the following lesson: Joint Implementation Plans (JIPs5) can improve the effectiveness of the “one WBG” approach noted by the CLR lessons. WBG CPFs normally intend collaboration across the Bank, IFC, and MIGA, but more often than not, CPFs do not spell out how such collaboration is to happen. Myanmar’s CPF JIP to improve access to electricity helped ensure that joint work would materialize. IEG rates the CPF development outcome as Moderately Satisfactory and WBG performance as Good.

Mexico - Completion and Learning Review : IEG Review

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This review of Mexico’s Completion and Learning Review (CLR) of the World Bank Group’s Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) covers the CPS period FY14-FY19 and the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) of January 26, 2017. Mexico is an upper-middle-income country with a gross national income (GNI) per capita (in current US$) of US$9,180 in 2018. During 2014-18, the average annual GDP growth rate Show MoreThis review of Mexico’s Completion and Learning Review (CLR) of the World Bank Group’s Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) covers the CPS period FY14-FY19 and the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) of January 26, 2017. Mexico is an upper-middle-income country with a gross national income (GNI) per capita (in current US$) of US$9,180 in 2018. During 2014-18, the average annual GDP growth rate was 2.2 percent in a show of resilience in the face of a complex external environment. In the first half of 2019, economic growth came to a virtual halt owing to policy uncertainty, tight monetary conditions and budget under-execution as well as slowing global manufacturing activity. Over the longer term, Mexico’s economic growth has been below the level needed to converge toward advanced country economies. The country’s per capita GDP, which is closely related to productivity, stands at 34 percent of U.S. per capita GDP compared with 49 percent in 1980.2 Poverty rates (share of individuals living on less than the 2011 PPP US$1.90 per day poverty line) fell from 3.8 percent of the population in 2016 to 2.2 percent in 2016. There was a small decline in the Gini index from 48.7 percent in 2014 to 48.3 in 2016. IEG’s Country Program Evaluation for Mexico (2018) indicates that Mexico’s multidimensional poverty index for the extremely poor fell from 11.3 percent in 2010 to 7.6 percent in 2016, helping reduce the overall index from 46.1 percent to 43.6 percent. At the same time, income growth of the bottom 40 percent was below the population mean.

The World Bank Group Partnership with the Philippines, 2009–18

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The World Bank Group Partnership with the Philippines, 2009–18 Country Program Evaluation
This Country Program Evaluation (CPE) assesses the development effectiveness of the World Bank Group program in the Philippines between 2009 and 2018.This Country Program Evaluation (CPE) assesses the development effectiveness of the World Bank Group program in the Philippines between 2009 and 2018.

China CLR Review FY13-17

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China, with a population of 1.4 billion, is an upper middle-income country with a GNI per capita of $8,690 in 2017. During 2013-2017, the economy grew annually at 7.1 percent on average, slower than the previous CPS period of 11.0 percent. A long period of economic growth put pressure on the environment and raised serious sustainability challenges. China is now contributing around 30 percent to Show MoreChina, with a population of 1.4 billion, is an upper middle-income country with a GNI per capita of $8,690 in 2017. During 2013-2017, the economy grew annually at 7.1 percent on average, slower than the previous CPS period of 11.0 percent. A long period of economic growth put pressure on the environment and raised serious sustainability challenges. China is now contributing around 30 percent to the world’s GHG emissions, partly because it is the largest consumer of carbon for electricity. Significant gains in poverty reduction continued during the CPS period. Absolute poverty, measured at $1.90 per day (2011 PPP), dropped from 1.9 percent in 2013 to 0.5 percent in 2018. Poverty and vulnerability in China are concentrated in rural areas and lagging regions in Central and Western China. The welfare of the bottom 40 percent of the income distribution has increased steadily. The Gini coefficient dropped to .46 in 2015 after having risen to a high of .5 in 2008. China’s Human Capital Index (HCI) stands at 0.67 and ranks 45th amongst 158 countries. The CPS had two focus areas: (i) supporting greener growth; and (ii) promoting more inclusive development as well as a cross-cutting theme of advancing mutually beneficial relations with the world.

The Key to Making Cities More Resilient? Accountability.

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The Key to Making Cities More Resilient? Accountability.
Governments and lending institutions must learn to identify—and track the progress of—interventions that build resilience in urban areas.Governments and lending institutions must learn to identify—and track the progress of—interventions that build resilience in urban areas.

Cabo Verde - Completion and Learning Review for the Period FY15 - FY17 : IEG Review

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This country partnership strategy (CPS) objectives are broadly congruent with Cabo Verde’s Third Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (GPRSP III), covering 2012-2016, which emphasized structural reforms to improve country competitiveness, including improving public investment, fostering private sector development, and Show MoreThis country partnership strategy (CPS) objectives are broadly congruent with Cabo Verde’s Third Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (GPRSP III), covering 2012-2016, which emphasized structural reforms to improve country competitiveness, including improving public investment, fostering private sector development, and strengthening the agriculture and fisheries sectors’ linkages with tourism. The CPS had two pillars as follows: (i) enhance macro-fiscal stability, setting the foundation for renewed growth; and (ii) improve competitiveness and private sector development. During the CPS period, the Bank Group showed flexibility and responded to changes in country conditions, macro fiscal developments, and government priorities by refocusing the program and dropping several planned interventions. The completion and learning review (CLR) highlighted six lessons. Independent evaluation group (IEG) adds the following lessons: (i) effective use of the performance and learning review (PLR) is crucial in the face of evolving country contexts and government priorities; and (ii) a focused assessment of likely areas attractive for private investment may be appropriate, and the government will have to cede space convincingly for private operators to enter key sectors.

Peru: Decentralized Subnational Roads Management

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This is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) on the Peru Regional Transport Infrastructure Decentralization Project, and the Decentralized Rural Transport Project. The objective of the Regional Project was to improve, through decentralization at the regional level the prioritization, the efficiency and effectiveness of regional transport interventions to contribute to Show MoreThis is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) on the Peru Regional Transport Infrastructure Decentralization Project, and the Decentralized Rural Transport Project. The objective of the Regional Project was to improve, through decentralization at the regional level the prioritization, the efficiency and effectiveness of regional transport interventions to contribute to regional development and poverty alleviation by enhancing transport conditions in the borrower’s territory. The Rural Project was to contribute to territorial development and the fight against rural poverty in the borrower’s territory by improving access of rural households and entrepreneurs to goods, social services, and income-generating opportunities through reduced transport costs and better rural transport infrastructure. Ratings for the Regional Transport Infrastructure Decentralization Project are as follows: Outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, Risk to development outcome was significant, Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately unsatisfactory. Ratings for the Decentralized Rural Transport Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was significant, and Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from these projects include: (i) Subnational governments need to own their road planning instruments to ensure their use. (ii) Ways to sustain the community-based microenterprises model for rural road maintenance need to be found. (iii) Road maintenance is essential all year round, and funding and bidding schedules need to be adjusted accordingly. (iv) Poverty impacts of rural roads projects are difficult to attribute. (v) f the road agency carries out activities that are outside its core responsibilities, it needs to involve the other ministries and government agencies that are responsible for these activities to ensure sustainability. (vi) Transferring successful solutions from one government level to another requires a careful contextual analysis and the subnational governments’ participation in decision making from the outset.

Managing Urban Spatial Growth: An evaluation of World Bank support to land administration, planning and development (Approach Paper)

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Managing urban spatial growth matters to reduce poverty and promote shared prosperity. As cities sprawl they become more unequal and inefficient. Land markets enable urban development through private investments in land and assets that guide spatial growth. However, when land management and land use planning are deficient, informal land markets proliferate, fostering the growth of slums and urban Show MoreManaging urban spatial growth matters to reduce poverty and promote shared prosperity. As cities sprawl they become more unequal and inefficient. Land markets enable urban development through private investments in land and assets that guide spatial growth. However, when land management and land use planning are deficient, informal land markets proliferate, fostering the growth of slums and urban sprawl. The World Bank has outlined an agenda for supporting urbanization which frames urban development in the context of a market‐based approach informed by spatial considerations. For over three decades the World Bank has been supporting and strengthening city institutions which manage urban spatial growth through land administration, land use planning and land development. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the relevance and contribution of WB support to enhance the capacity of clients to manage urban spatial growth through land administration, land use planning and land development. The evaluation will document what works and why; and to draw lessons for future interventions. The evaluation will also assess World Bank support to foster client’s capacity to meet relevant SDG’s as they relate to the management of urban spatial growth including, equal rights over ownership and control (SDG 1.4.2), inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries (SDG 11.3) as outlined in the United Nations New Urban Agenda 2017‐20305. This evaluation complements the forthcoming evaluation Building Urban Resilience: An evaluation of the World Bank Groups Evolving Experience 2007‐2017.

Croatia - Completion and Learning Review for the Period of FY14-FY17 : IEG Review

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This review of the Croatia's Completion and Learning Review (CLR) of the World Bank Group's (WBG) Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) covers the CPS period, FY14-FY17, and the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) of 2016.The World Bank Group program had three focus areas: (i) promoting fiscal consolidation, (ii) improving competitiveness to spur growth, and (iii) maximizing the benefits of EU Show MoreThis review of the Croatia's Completion and Learning Review (CLR) of the World Bank Group's (WBG) Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) covers the CPS period, FY14-FY17, and the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) of 2016.The World Bank Group program had three focus areas: (i) promoting fiscal consolidation, (ii) improving competitiveness to spur growth, and (iii) maximizing the benefits of EU membership. These were broadly congruent with the government's 2013 Economic Program, which covered fiscal consolidation with a particular focus on pension reform and rationalizing hospitals; growth and competitiveness through a sustainable development strategy based on the knowledge economy; and absorption of EU funds available to Croatia. The CPS addressed key challenges facing the country, including EU accession, and was congruent with the Government's 2013 Economic Program and aligned with the WBG's twin goals. The analytical work undertaken by the World Bank contributed to the 2018 Systematic Country Diagnostic Study (SCD), and addressed fiscal issues as well as issues in the justice system, energy, and smart specialization. Portfolio performance was comparable with the ECA region and the World Bank, but some interventions were affected by changes in government priorities.