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International Finance Corporation Country Diagnostics and Strategies Under IFC 3.0: An Early-Stage Assessment (Approach Paper)

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In December 2016, the International Finance Corporation (IFC) introduced its latest strategy, IFC 3.0, which aimed to enhance IFC’s development impact by creating “new and stronger markets for private sector solutions” (IFC 2019) and “mobilizing private capital at significant scale” (IFC 2021) where it is needed the most. To achieve IFC 3.0’s aims of market creation and private capital Show MoreIn December 2016, the International Finance Corporation (IFC) introduced its latest strategy, IFC 3.0, which aimed to enhance IFC’s development impact by creating “new and stronger markets for private sector solutions” (IFC 2019) and “mobilizing private capital at significant scale” (IFC 2021) where it is needed the most. To achieve IFC 3.0’s aims of market creation and private capital mobilization at scale, IFC recognized it would need new tools and analytical capabilities to: (i) Develop a deeper understanding of the constraints limiting private sector solutions and opportunities in each country’s economy, including in key enabling and productive sectors; and (ii) Allow for a more strategic selection, sequencing, and implementation of its activities and stronger coordination across the World Bank Group. At the country level, IFC 3.0’s tools included a new diagnostic instrument, the Country Private Sector Diagnostic (CPSD), and a new strategy instrument, the IFC Country Strategy. The objective of the evaluation is to assess whether IFC Country Strategies and CPSDs have enhanced IFC’s ability to create markets and mobilize capital at scale and have informed Bank Group collaboration on private sector development. The evaluation will focus on IFC Country Strategies and CPSDs completed since their inception in fiscal year (FY)18. The evaluation will cover all 50 IFC Country Strategies and the 31 CPSDs completed between FY18 and December 31, 2021.

Malawi: Nutrition and HIV/AIDS Project (PPAR)

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This report focuses on lessons learned from the International Development Association’s (IDA) support to maternal and child health and nutrition under the Malawi Nutrition and HIV/AIDS Project. At the time of project approval, Malawi had made substantial gains in reducing the prevalence of underweight children. However, chronic undernutrition remained high—47 percent of Malawi’s children under Show MoreThis report focuses on lessons learned from the International Development Association’s (IDA) support to maternal and child health and nutrition under the Malawi Nutrition and HIV/AIDS Project. At the time of project approval, Malawi had made substantial gains in reducing the prevalence of underweight children. However, chronic undernutrition remained high—47 percent of Malawi’s children under the age of five were stunted, exceeding the Sub-Saharan Africa average of 40 percent. The underlying causes of malnutrition included poverty, nutrition-deficient household behaviors, inadequate food preparation, and care practices. The government of Malawi’s response to chronic high malnutrition rates began in 2004, when it created the Department of Nutrition, HIV and AIDS (DNHA) and implemented a nutrition policy. The Nutrition and HIV/AIDS Project (the project) was approved in 2012 and financed through an International Development Association credit ($32 million) and an International Development Association grant ($26 million). The project development objective was “to increase access to and utilization of selected services known to contribute to the reduction of stunted growth, maternal and child anemia, and the prevention of HIV and AIDS in children and sexually active adults.” Ratings for the Nutrition and HIV/AIDS Project are as follows: Outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, Overall efficacy was modest, Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and Quality of monitoring and evaluation were modest/negligible. This assessment offers the following five lessons and recommendations: (i) While the care group model might be a viable option for nutrition communication and potential behavior change, it is critical to focus on the conditions that can make the model successful. (ii) Developing community-based activities at a large scale takes time and continuous support and it is fundamental to adequately estimate the time and resources needed for full implementation. (iii) The care group model requires intensive stakeholder engagement and sensitivity to the social context. (iv) To track output delivery and expected change, the PDO, results framework, and indicators need to be well tailored. (v) Project structures that are sufficiently flexible to adjust to donor and government needs, help implementation and achievement of results In the HIV/AIDS component, the project adeptly responded to shifts in donor funding commitments to ensure efficient deployment of project resources in needed areas.

The Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) CLR Review FY15-20

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This review of the World Bank Group’s (WBG) Completion and Learning Review (CLR) covers the period of the Regional Partnership Strategy (RPS), FY15-19, and updated in the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) dated May 1, 2018, which extended the CPF period by one year to FY20. The overall objective of the RPS was to contribute to laying the foundations for sustainable inclusive growth. The Show MoreThis review of the World Bank Group’s (WBG) Completion and Learning Review (CLR) covers the period of the Regional Partnership Strategy (RPS), FY15-19, and updated in the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) dated May 1, 2018, which extended the CPF period by one year to FY20. The overall objective of the RPS was to contribute to laying the foundations for sustainable inclusive growth. The strategy was aligned with the stated government objectives as presented in the RPS, as well as with the findings of the 2018 Systematic Regional Diagnostic (SRD). The program (as modified in the PLR) was organized around eight engagement areas, which were all relevant in relation to the overall RPS objectives. At the time of the PLR there had been very slow delivery of the lending program; this required substantial project redesign, splitting multi-sector into single-sector projects, and multicountry into single-country projects. The key issue of economic performance is linked to widespread poverty (often from unemployment). The program was thus aligned appropriately with the twin goals, although only two of the eight objectives addressed poverty issues directly. Gender was addressed primarily as part of one objective while climate change was addressed through one objective for vulnerability to natural disasters.

International Finance Corporation Additionality in Middle-Income Countries (Approach Paper)

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Accounting for almost half of global gross domestic product and 70 percent of the world’s population, middle-income countries (MICs) face multiple development challenges limiting achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including poverty and inclusion, climate change, financial access, and economic diversification and market development. The International Finance Corporation’s ( Show MoreAccounting for almost half of global gross domestic product and 70 percent of the world’s population, middle-income countries (MICs) face multiple development challenges limiting achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including poverty and inclusion, climate change, financial access, and economic diversification and market development. The International Finance Corporation’s (IFC) portfolio is focused heavily on MICs. Additionality is the unique support that IFC brings to a private client or client country that is not typically offered by commercial sources of finance (IFC 2019). This evaluation assesses the unique support and value addition (additionality) that the International Finance Corporation (IFC) provides to middle-income countries (MICs). It will cover IFC’s support of MICs through investment and advisory projects, and through its platforms and partnerships. The primary audience is the World Bank Group Board and IFC management and staff, however some findings of the evaluation will be relevant to a broader audience including multilateral and bilateral financing private sector activities, investors, and government officials and practitioners in client countries.

Democratic Republic of Congo CLR Review FY13-20

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This is a validation of the Completion and Learning Review (CLR) for the World Bank Group’s (WBG) engagement in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) covering the Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) FY13-FY17. For completeness and learning purposes, and while the CAS formally expired in FY17, IEG has elected to examine the period FY18- FY21 as well, where data are available, as no CPF was in place Show MoreThis is a validation of the Completion and Learning Review (CLR) for the World Bank Group’s (WBG) engagement in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) covering the Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) FY13-FY17. For completeness and learning purposes, and while the CAS formally expired in FY17, IEG has elected to examine the period FY18- FY21 as well, where data are available, as no CPF was in place to replace the CAS. Owing to data limitations and in line with the Working Arrangements between the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) and WBG, IEG’s review does not rate the CAS’s overall development outcome or the WBG’s performance. The CAS was congruent with country development challenges and the country’s second Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP-II). It aimed to address the major binding constraints, rooted in conflict and fragility, that had prevented DRC from translating a recent track record of economic growth into poverty reduction: ongoing conflict, poor governance, highly limited capacity, and lack of employment opportunities. The program contained four focus areas: (i) increasing state effectiveness and improving good governance; (ii) boosting competitiveness to accelerate private-sector-led growth and job creation; (iii) improving social services delivery and increasing human development indicators; and (iv) addressing fragility and conflict in the Eastern provinces. Gender and climate change were defined as cross-cutting themes.

World Bank Group Engagement with Morocco 2011–21 (Approach Paper)

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This Country Program Evaluation aims to assess the World Bank Group’s contribution to Morocco’s development trajectory over the past decade (fiscal years 2011–21) and is timed to inform the next Country Partnership Framework and future Bank Group engagements in the country. The Country Program Evaluation will use a range of methods to assess how the Bank Group has supported Morocco’s efforts to Show MoreThis Country Program Evaluation aims to assess the World Bank Group’s contribution to Morocco’s development trajectory over the past decade (fiscal years 2011–21) and is timed to inform the next Country Partnership Framework and future Bank Group engagements in the country. The Country Program Evaluation will use a range of methods to assess how the Bank Group has supported Morocco’s efforts to tackle major constraints to achieving its objective of reaching upper-middle-income-country status. The evaluation will focus on three outcome areas: (i) fostering private sector–led growth that absorbs a growing labor force; (ii) strengthening inclusive human capital formation and addressing the obstacles to women and youth labor force participation; and (iii) reducing climate risks and natural resource depletion and addressing their combined effects on the most vulnerable people, especially in rural areas.

Côte d’Ivoire: First, Second, and Third Poverty Reduction Support Credits (PPAR)

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The Côte d’Ivoire Poverty Reduction Support Credit (PRSC) series provides an opportunity to test the hypothesis that a DPO series can effectively help restore a post-conflict country to growth and catalyze longer-term reforms when there is a sound underlying macroeconomic framework and capable administration. The PPAR adds value to the initial Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) validation of this Show MoreThe Côte d’Ivoire Poverty Reduction Support Credit (PRSC) series provides an opportunity to test the hypothesis that a DPO series can effectively help restore a post-conflict country to growth and catalyze longer-term reforms when there is a sound underlying macroeconomic framework and capable administration. The PPAR adds value to the initial Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) validation of this programmatic series by reviewing the sustainability of reforms undertaken, applying the new Implementation Completion and Results Report Review methodology for development policy financing, and incorporating views of a wider range of stakeholders to draw lessons. Ratings for these projects were as follows: Outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, Risk to development outcome wash, Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and the Quality of monitoring and evaluation was moderately unsatisfactory. This assessment offers the following lessons: (i) Designing DPO series with too many unrelated prior actions may undermine achievement of results. (ii) A clear results chain is needed to prioritize critical actions and monitor results. (iii) Critical reforms that require sequencing over an extended period for effective implementation should be complemented by institutional measures for sustained implementation and technical assistance projects to build capacity. (iv) In post-conflict situations, the need for budget support provides an opportunity for introducing and accelerating reforms.

Reducing child undernutrition: lessons from international development

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Reducing child undernutrition: lessons from international development
An online Nutrition for Growth side-eventAn online Nutrition for Growth side-event

Republic of Congo: Support for Economic Diversification Project (PPAR)

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The original objective of the Support for Economic Diversification Project as stated at appraisal stage was “to promote private sector growth and investment in the non-oil sectors in the Republic of Congo.” The revised objective of the project after the 2014 restructuring was “to promote private investment in select non-oil value chains and to support SME [small and medium enterprise] development Show MoreThe original objective of the Support for Economic Diversification Project as stated at appraisal stage was “to promote private sector growth and investment in the non-oil sectors in the Republic of Congo.” The revised objective of the project after the 2014 restructuring was “to promote private investment in select non-oil value chains and to support SME [small and medium enterprise] development.” Ratings for this project were as follows: Outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, Overall efficacy was negligible for original PDO and modest for revised PDO, Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and Quality of monitoring and evaluation was modest. This assessment offers the following lessons: (i) When working with low-capacity clients, especially in countries affected by fragility, conflict, and violence, design should be simple with a minimum of components and limited requirements for coordination. (ii) For investment climate reform type projects, particularly in countries with strong centralized power dynamics, a key champion at the highest level of the government and coordination among the various ministries are crucial to bringing the public and private sectors together and helping identify and implement the reforms needed to improve the investment climate and competitiveness. (iii) It is crucial for projects involving large counterpart funding, especially in countries where public revenues are highly dependent on natural resources, to consider the risk of commodity price fluctuations for counterpart funding at the time of appraisal and seek to mitigate such risk. (iv) A matching grant scheme should clearly identify the needs of the beneficiaries at the time of the project design, especially in countries similar to the Republic of Congo that lack an entrepreneurship mind-set, have a large informal sector, and lack funding from financial institutions to firms.

The World Bank Group’s Experience with the IDA Private Sector Window: An Early-Stage Assessment

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Employees of Vita Foam working in Freetown, Sierra Leone on June 19, 2015. Photo © Dominic Chavez/World Bank
This report is an early-stage assessment of the World Bank Group’s experience with the International Development Association (IDA) Private Sector Window (PSW).This report is an early-stage assessment of the World Bank Group’s experience with the International Development Association (IDA) Private Sector Window (PSW).