Search

Content type
Topic:Governance
Displaying 1 - 10 of 336

Morocco: Municipal Solid Waste Sector Development Policy Loans 1-4 (PPAR)

PDF file
The development objective of the first Development Policy Loan series (DPLs 1 and 2) was to improve the financial, environmental, and social performance of Morocco’s MSW sector. The development objective of the second DPL series (DPL 3 and 4) was to improve the economic, environmental, and social performance of Morocco’s MSW sector. The slight revision of the project development objectives Show MoreThe development objective of the first Development Policy Loan series (DPLs 1 and 2) was to improve the financial, environmental, and social performance of Morocco’s MSW sector. The development objective of the second DPL series (DPL 3 and 4) was to improve the economic, environmental, and social performance of Morocco’s MSW sector. The slight revision of the project development objectives between the two-program series comprised changing the “financial performance” part of the initial objective to “economic performance” in the second series. Ratings for Loans 1 and 2 were as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was significant, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Ratings for Loans 3 and 4 were as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was significant, Bank performance was satisfactory, Borrower performance was satisfactory. This assessment offers the following lessons: (i) A policy loan can be a viable instrument to start reforms in the MSWM sector, cover multiple aspects, and obtain the government’s sustained attention and commitment for a nationwide program. However, because of the sector’s complexity, with many actors involved at the national and local levels, these reforms require long-term engagement using various instruments. (ii) Continued attention to strengthening municipalities, both financially and institutionally, is key to enabling them to fulfill their service provision mandate on SWM sustainably. (iii) Behavioral change and leveraging technology are critically needed to establish separation at source and promote waste reduction, reuse, and recycling, promoting the evolution into a circular economy and ensuring environmental sustainability. (iv) Integrated upstream interventions including policy reforms, incentives and investments for circular economy (along with focus on collection and disposal) are needed to achieve sustainable solid waste management systems. (v) Scaling up the formalization of waste pickers requires broader enabling policy changes and capacity building and incentives at the local government level.

Republic of Congo: Support for Economic Diversification Project (PPAR)

PDF file
The original objective of the Support for Economic Diversification Project as stated at appraisal stage was “to promote private sector growth and investment in the non-oil sectors in the Republic of Congo.” The revised objective of the project after the 2014 restructuring was “to promote private investment in select non-oil value chains and to support SME [small and medium enterprise] development Show MoreThe original objective of the Support for Economic Diversification Project as stated at appraisal stage was “to promote private sector growth and investment in the non-oil sectors in the Republic of Congo.” The revised objective of the project after the 2014 restructuring was “to promote private investment in select non-oil value chains and to support SME [small and medium enterprise] development.” Ratings for this project were as follows: Outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, Overall efficacy was negligible for original PDO and modest for revised PDO, Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and Quality of monitoring and evaluation was modest. This assessment offers the following lessons: (i) When working with low-capacity clients, especially in countries affected by fragility, conflict, and violence, design should be simple with a minimum of components and limited requirements for coordination. (ii) For investment climate reform type projects, particularly in countries with strong centralized power dynamics, a key champion at the highest level of the government and coordination among the various ministries are crucial to bringing the public and private sectors together and helping identify and implement the reforms needed to improve the investment climate and competitiveness. (iii) It is crucial for projects involving large counterpart funding, especially in countries where public revenues are highly dependent on natural resources, to consider the risk of commodity price fluctuations for counterpart funding at the time of appraisal and seek to mitigate such risk. (iv) A matching grant scheme should clearly identify the needs of the beneficiaries at the time of the project design, especially in countries similar to the Republic of Congo that lack an entrepreneurship mind-set, have a large informal sector, and lack funding from financial institutions to firms.

Addressing Gender Inequalities in Countries Affected by Fragility, Conflict and Violence: An Evaluation of WBG Support (Approach Paper)

PDF file
The WBG recognizes that achieving gender equality is particularly challenging in those settings, but it is critical to make progress in peace building and resilience to crisis. Addressing gender gaps is a priority in FCV-affected countries because fragility and conflict disproportionally affect women and girls and exacerbate gender inequalities. The World Bank Group recognizes that effective Show MoreThe WBG recognizes that achieving gender equality is particularly challenging in those settings, but it is critical to make progress in peace building and resilience to crisis. Addressing gender gaps is a priority in FCV-affected countries because fragility and conflict disproportionally affect women and girls and exacerbate gender inequalities. The World Bank Group recognizes that effective responses to gender inequalities in FCV-affected countries need to be context-specific, country-owned, systemic, and sustainable. The goal of this formative evaluation is to provide lessons on what worked well, less well, and why, regarding the World Bank Group’s support to FCV-affected countries to achieve transformational change towards gender equality in two areas: women’s and girls’ economic empowerment and gender-based violence.

Benin: Ninth and Tenth Poverty Reduction Support Credit (PPAR)

PDF file
Benin was a low-income country with a gross domestic product per capita of $1,291 at the time of preparation of the Poverty Reduction Support Credit (PRSC) 9 and 10 series in 2014. Its economy was driven by agricultural production (of cotton in particular) and reexport and transit trade with Nigeria. As a result, Benin’s economy was vulnerable to trade policy changes or economic downturns in Show MoreBenin was a low-income country with a gross domestic product per capita of $1,291 at the time of preparation of the Poverty Reduction Support Credit (PRSC) 9 and 10 series in 2014. Its economy was driven by agricultural production (of cotton in particular) and reexport and transit trade with Nigeria. As a result, Benin’s economy was vulnerable to trade policy changes or economic downturns in Nigeria. The development objectives of this series were to: (i) promote good governance and high-quality public financial management, and (ii) strengthen private sector competitiveness. Ratings for the Ninth and Tenth Poverty Reduction Support Credit project are as follows: Outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, Risk to development outcome was substantial, Bank performance was unsatisfactory, and Borrower performance was not applicable. This assessment offers the following lessons: (i) Relevant lessons from previous operations need to be taken on board when designing new DPF operations. (ii) Prior actions need to be substantive, that is, be critical to reforms with value added. (iii) The World Bank should design projects with a clear understanding of the likely “winners and losers;” failure to do this makes it more likely that projects will not be implemented as planned or sustained over time. (iv) Distributional impact analysis from DPF-supported reforms should inform the design of operations.

The World Bank Group’s Experience with the IDA Private Sector Window: An Early-Stage Assessment

PDF file
Employees of Vita Foam working in Freetown, Sierra Leone on June 19, 2015. Photo © Dominic Chavez/World Bank
This report is an early-stage assessment of the World Bank Group’s experience with the International Development Association (IDA) Private Sector Window (PSW).This report is an early-stage assessment of the World Bank Group’s experience with the International Development Association (IDA) Private Sector Window (PSW).

The Drive for Financial Inclusion: Lessons of World Bank Group Experience – Approach Paper

PDF file
Financial inclusion is expected to help address poverty and shared prosperity by improving and smoothing household incomes at the same time as reducing vulnerability to shocks, improving investments in education and health, and encouraging the growth of businesses and related employment. The poor face immense financial challenges. The income of the poor is not only lower but also more volatile. Show MoreFinancial inclusion is expected to help address poverty and shared prosperity by improving and smoothing household incomes at the same time as reducing vulnerability to shocks, improving investments in education and health, and encouraging the growth of businesses and related employment. The poor face immense financial challenges. The income of the poor is not only lower but also more volatile. They often rely on a range of unpredictable jobs or on weather-dependent agriculture. Transforming irregular income flows into a dependable resource to meet daily needs represents a crucial challenge for the poor. Another challenge lies in meeting costs if a major expense arises (such as a home repair, medical service, or funeral) or if a breadwinner falls ill. Savings, credit, insurance, and remittances can each help the poor to smooth volatile incomes and expenses, providing a margin of safety when income drops or expenses rise, or providing the needed funds for children’s education or health care. Additionally, financial inclusion in the form of financial services for microentrepreneurs and very small enterprises has been guided by the intention that it can help them to survive, grow, and generate income for the poor. Nonetheless, evidence that financial inclusion directly takes people out of poverty is mixed. The main objective of this evaluation is to enhance learning from the Bank Group’s experience, including the World Bank, IFC, and MIGA, in supporting client countries in their efforts to advance financial inclusion over the period of FY14–20. It both updates and expands on a 2015 IEG evaluation, which assessed Bank Group activity for FY07–13. It not only updates an evaluation of WBG activity in financial inclusion and in support of national financial inclusion strategies, but also plans for a deep focus on the following: (i) A retrospective look at the drive for universal financial access (the UFA 2020 initiative), including outcomes achieved in its 25 focus countries; (ii) Progress and challenges in women’s access to financial services (gender); (iii) An in-depth examination of digital financial inclusion efforts and the role of digital financial services as vehicles for financial inclusion. This work intends to focus more deeply on outcomes on the ground for poor households and microenterprises. It intends to understand the relevance and effectiveness of these activities, including the outcomes and the mechanisms by which observed outcomes were achieved. The evaluation aims to identify lessons applicable to the World Bank, IFC or MIGA by obtaining evidence-based findings of what works, why, and for whom.

Mozambique Country Program Evaluation (Approach Paper)

PDF file
Mozambique’s recent history is characterized by economic growth, rising inequality, and fragility. After the end of a civil war in 1992, Mozambique enjoyed a sustained period of growth until 2014, positioning it as one of the fastest-growing countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Such growth, however, was not broadly shared and inequality increased. Fragility in Mozambique traces back to the uneven Show MoreMozambique’s recent history is characterized by economic growth, rising inequality, and fragility. After the end of a civil war in 1992, Mozambique enjoyed a sustained period of growth until 2014, positioning it as one of the fastest-growing countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Such growth, however, was not broadly shared and inequality increased. Fragility in Mozambique traces back to the uneven historical development of the state, in part shaped by geographical characteristics, and to the nature of the political settlement and the exclusionary political arrangements that it maintains. This evaluation seeks to assess the World Bank Group’s success at helping Mozambique address challenges that constrain its development. The evaluation will cover fiscal years (FY)08–21 and is timed to inform Mozambique’s next Country Partnership Framework (CPF). The evaluation will assess the Bank Group’s support for addressing three development challenges and drivers of fragility in Mozambique: (i) rural poverty linked to weak agricultural productivity and regional inequalities; (ii) weak institutions and governance; and (iii) vulnerability to natural disasters and climate change.

Results and Performance of the World Bank Group 2021 – Concept Note

PDF file
The Results and Performance of the World Bank Group (RAP) report is the annual review of evidence from IEG evaluation and validation work on the development effectiveness of the World Bank Group (WBG). It will be the eleventh in a series that began in 2010; it will also be the second report departing from the exclusive traditional focus on ratings to also provide additional evidence on the Show MoreThe Results and Performance of the World Bank Group (RAP) report is the annual review of evidence from IEG evaluation and validation work on the development effectiveness of the World Bank Group (WBG). It will be the eleventh in a series that began in 2010; it will also be the second report departing from the exclusive traditional focus on ratings to also provide additional evidence on the nature of intended outcomes across the WBG. RAP 2021 will build and expand on the RAP 2020 innovations by refining the classification framework for intended outcomes and integrating analysis of existing ratings (trends) with the outcome classification analysis. Like past RAP reports, RAP 2021 will provide an analysis of project ratings and factors associated with performance as measured by those ratings. Expanding on the past, RAP 2021 will analyze and interpret these ratings through the lens created by the refined typology of intended outcomes. This lens would enable an examination of ratings that takes into account portfolio composition in terms of the type (classification) of intended outcomes, as well as the likelihood of achieving those intended outcomes. In other words, RAP 2021 aims at providing a joint assessment of ratings and the risk-return profile of the portfolio generating those ratings.

Brazil: Rio State Fiscal Efficiency for Quality of Public Service Delivery Development Policy Loan (DPL III) (PPAR)

PDF file
This is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) of the World Bank Group for the Fiscal Efficiency for Quality of Public Service Delivery Development Policy Loan (DPL) III (P126465) to the state of Rio de Janeiro for $300 million. The program covered three policy areas: (i) tax administration, (ii) public financial management, and (iii) education Show MoreThis is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) of the World Bank Group for the Fiscal Efficiency for Quality of Public Service Delivery Development Policy Loan (DPL) III (P126465) to the state of Rio de Janeiro for $300 million. The program covered three policy areas: (i) tax administration, (ii) public financial management, and (iii) education and health. It achieved some of its objectives and targets in the short term (in fiscal years 2013–14), but these achievements were not sustained. Ratings for the Rio State Development Policy Loan III are as follows: Outcome was unsatisfactory, and Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory. The assessment offers the following lessons: (i) Subnational programs supporting institutional reform in areas such as tax administration, public financial management, education, and health require a long-term strategic vision and sufficient time for implementation. (ii) It was difficult to achieve fiscal sustainability in Rio state by reforming only a few technical aspects of tax administration without accounting for important issues, such as pensions, dependence on unstable oil revenues, weak institutions, and chronic corruption. (iii) An assessment of the Rio state’s fiscal situation, its implementation capacity, and medium-term perspectives could have improved the program’s design since the state was in dire financial situation and lacked the bandwidth to properly prepare and execute the 12 loans it was simultaneously negotiating with multiple lenders.

Madagascar Country Program Evaluation (Approach Paper)

PDF file
This Country Program Evaluation will assess the development effectiveness of the World Bank Group’s engagement in Madagascar between fiscal year (FY)07 and FY21, and will explore whether the Bank Group’s $3 billion engagement was appropriate for the Malagasy context of weak governance, widespread poverty, and economic stagnation and adapted to changing circumstances, priorities, and lessons from Show MoreThis Country Program Evaluation will assess the development effectiveness of the World Bank Group’s engagement in Madagascar between fiscal year (FY)07 and FY21, and will explore whether the Bank Group’s $3 billion engagement was appropriate for the Malagasy context of weak governance, widespread poverty, and economic stagnation and adapted to changing circumstances, priorities, and lessons from experience. It’s main goal is to distill lessons from experience to inform future engagement. The evaluation is timed to inform the formulation of the new CPF with Madagascar, and also aims to derive significant lessons for the broader development community. To these ends, it will (i) assess the relevance and effectiveness of the Bank Group’s support to Madagascar between FY12 and FY21 and (ii) examine the Bank Group’s contribution to improving governance and fostering rural development during FY07–21.