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Topic:Fragile States, Conflict, & Violence
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🎧 Lessons from developing resilient agrifood systems

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Lessons from developing resilient agrifood systems
345 million people in 82 countries were experiencing acute food insecurity by June 2022. Climate change, the Coronavirus pandemic and rising food prices due to the conflict in Ukraine threatened to drive this number even higher. One important path to promoting long term food security is building well-functioning agrifood systems. These systems are especially important now in the face of global Show More 345 million people in 82 countries were experiencing acute food insecurity by June 2022. Climate change, the Coronavirus pandemic and rising food prices due to the conflict in Ukraine threatened to drive this number even higher. One important path to promoting long term food security is building well-functioning agrifood systems. These systems are especially important now in the face of global shocks. In this episode, Dr. Agnes Kalibata, president of AGRA, joins host Brenda Barbour to explore the importance of developing well-functioning and resilient agrifood systems, and how the World Bank Group and other actors can support countries in developing agrifood systems that are productive, resilient, and sustainable.   Listen on Spotify, Apple Podcasts or Stitcher. Related Resources IEG Evaluation:Toward Productive, Inclusive, and Sustainable Farms and Agribusiness Firms: An Evaluation of the World Bank Group’s Support for the Development of Agrifood Economies (2010–20) Blog: Building inclusive, productive, and sustainable agrifood systems                 Blog: Complementary Interventions for Agrifood System Development – Insights and Lessons Blog: Sustainable Diversification of Agrifood Economies – Insights and Lessons

The World Bank Group’s Capital Increase Package in the Context of the Forward Look - An Independent Validation (Approach Paper)

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This validation assessment fulfills the commitment in the capital increase package (CIP) of an independent assessment after five years. Building on management’s own reporting and other evidence, the validation will assess the World Bank Group’s progress in implementing the policy measures and achieving the targets set under the package. This paper describes the approach of the Independent Show MoreThis validation assessment fulfills the commitment in the capital increase package (CIP) of an independent assessment after five years. Building on management’s own reporting and other evidence, the validation will assess the World Bank Group’s progress in implementing the policy measures and achieving the targets set under the package. This paper describes the approach of the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) to validating management’s reporting and assessing progress on the capital increase package priorities.

Ukraine: Lessons to inform the (hopefully) not too distant future

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Orange sunset and cloud over cityscape Kiev, Ukraine, Europe
An evaluation of a decade of World Bank Group support for Ukraine has important lessons for eventual stabilization and reconstruction. An evaluation of a decade of World Bank Group support for Ukraine has important lessons for eventual stabilization and reconstruction.

Україна: Досвід, який стане підґрунтям для прийняття рішень у (сподіваємося) недалекому майбутньому

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Orange sunset and cloud over cityscape Kiev, Ukraine, Europe
Аналіз допомоги, яку Група Світового банку надавала Україні протягом останніх десяти років, визначає важливі уроки для подальшої стабілізації та відбудови Аналіз допомоги, яку Група Світового банку надавала Україні протягом останніх десяти років, визначає важливі уроки для подальшої стабілізації та відбудови

The World Bank Group in Ukraine, 2012–20

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Ukraine CPE
This evaluation reviews the effectiveness of the World Bank Group’s partnership with Ukraine during 2012–20 and contains lessons that can inform the Bank Group’s support for recovery and reconstruction in the country. This evaluation reviews the effectiveness of the World Bank Group’s partnership with Ukraine during 2012–20 and contains lessons that can inform the Bank Group’s support for recovery and reconstruction in the country.

The World Bank in Madagascar: adapting to fragility and governance challenges

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A public primary school in the village of Amoronimania, Madagascar.
An evaluation of the World Bank’s engagement in Madagascar during fiscal years 2007-2021 finds a Bank that is increasingly attuned to political economy risks. Yet elite capture remains difficult to overcome.An evaluation of the World Bank’s engagement in Madagascar during fiscal years 2007-2021 finds a Bank that is increasingly attuned to political economy risks. Yet elite capture remains difficult to overcome.

Unlocking the potential of the private sector in conflict-affected situations

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Photo: Small Store, Sana'a, Yemen, Credit: Rod Waddington.
Up to two-thirds of the world’s extreme poor will live in conflict-affected situations (FCS) by 2030, according to World Bank Group (WBG) estimates. Advancing development outcomes in FCS is therefore central to the WBG’s mission, and the private sector is key to increasing economic growth and breaking the cycles of violence and fragility. The 2011 World Development Report: Conflict Security and Show MoreUp to two-thirds of the world’s extreme poor will live in conflict-affected situations (FCS) by 2030, according to World Bank Group (WBG) estimates. Advancing development outcomes in FCS is therefore central to the WBG’s mission, and the private sector is key to increasing economic growth and breaking the cycles of violence and fragility. The 2011 World Development Report: Conflict Security and Development, and the WBG’s first Fragility, Conflict, and Violence (FCV) strategy (2020-2025) have both highlighted the critical role of the private sector in its approach to FCS. The private sector can create jobs, provide livelihoods and services, and contribute to sustainable development across multiple sectors. However, despite its potential for impact, the private sector in FCS is often informal, constrained, distorted, and may involve actors that are part of the conflict. With a focus on unlocking this potential, supporting private investments in FCS has been a strategic priority for both the Bank Group’s International Finance Corporation (IFC) and Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) for over a decade. Both institutions have committed to scaling up their activities in FCS significantly. IFC has committed to delivering 40% of its business volume in International Development Association (IDA) and FCS countries, and 15–20% in low-income IDA and IDA FCS countries by 2030. MIGA has committed to increasing the share of the volume of guarantees issued to projects in FCS and IDA countries to 30– 33% by fiscal year 2023. What has been learned from past support for private investments in FCS? A recent IEG evaluation assesses IFC’s and MIGA’s support for private investments and their development impact on FCS and identifies key constraining factors and possible trade-offs that investors, practitioners, and policymakers should consider. The evaluation finds that while both IFC and MIGA have gradually deployed new approaches and instruments in FCS, they have not exhibited an upward trend sufficient to achieve the targets. This is in part the result of private businesses often being limited by insecurity, the lack of basic infrastructure—such as electricity—, weak governance and corruption, and lack of access to finance and land. These factors translate into financial and non-financial risks that deter private investors away from FCS and constrain the pipeline of bankable projects for IFC and MIGA to support.  Evidence shows that many private investments supported by IFC and MIGA in FCS have been effective, despite the heightened risks in fragile contexts. Evaluated IFC-supported private sector investments during the 2010-2021 period performed just below investments in non-FCS environments, driven by the strong performance of projects in infrastructure, larger FCS economies, and with repeat IFC clients. And, in many instances, successful investments showed effects well beyond the projects, such as the development of local markets.  Concentrated in traditionally well performing sectors, such as infrastructure, evaluated MIGA guarantees in FCS environments outperformed those in non-FCS. Another factor contributing to the high ratings was working with sophisticated international companies that tend to be better capitalized and have more diversified revenue sources compared to local firms (which MIGA cannot generally support). Leveraging this performance with increasing activities in FCS remains a challenge. Under the IFC 3.0 strategy, IFC has deployed tools to support its engagement in FCS and tackle constraints to private investments in FCS. These include the blending of private and public funds to mitigate financial risks in high-risk environments, efforts to scale up upstream market creation activities to develop bankable projects, instruments to strengthen country diagnostics to better understand the intrinsic market characteristics of every country to address them more effectively, and adjusting its measuring and monitoring framework to better account for development impacts. While some of these recent instruments could bear fruit in the future, it is yet too early to assess their impact. Early assessment of a new tool: the IDA Private Sector Window The World Bank Group’s fund for the world’s poorest countries, IDA, launched the Private Sector Window (PSW), now the WBG’s most prominent blended finance instrument. The PSW uses non-commercial, development funds to mobilize private investments in underserved sectors and markets in FCS countries. An early IEG assessment shows that while the PSW allowed IFC and MIGA to support some projects in new markets and sectors, its usage was below expectations as the financial risk mitigation offered by the PSW is only one of the factors deterring private investments in high-risk countries.  The private sector in low-income and fragile countries needs more than credit.  A shortage of bankable projects that meet the IFC’s and MIGA’s standards, more so than the availability of finance, limits scaling up business in fragile contexts. Addressing this constraint warrants further shifts towards efforts to develop projects and warrants changes in the institutions’ business models.  Factors and Trade-Offs to Consider in Scaling Up Investments in FCS This is where efforts to scale up upstream market creation activities come into play and where trade-offs need to be considered. Recognizing the difficult landscape in FCS, IFC and MIGA should continue to review their financial risk and implications in their portfolio approach to ensure that their risk tolerance, acceptance of higher costs, and longer project gestation periods align with their strategic intentions.  IFC and MIGA should also recalibrate further their approaches, client engagements and instruments in FCS to enhance the pipeline of bankable projects. They should take full advantage of their toolboxes to build capacity among less experienced clients and seek to expand their client base beyond those meeting IFC and MIGA standards and policies to include smaller, local, and regional firms.  Close coordination between IFC, MIGA, and the World Bank could enhance their effectiveness in addressing weak governance, uncertainty, underdeveloped regulatory regimes, poorly functioning institutions, and other non-financial risks limiting private investments. It is also important to recognize the heterogeneity in country characteristics and pursue differentiated strategies based on country-specific conflict analyses and diagnostics of opportunities and constraints for private investments. Furthermore, IFC and MIGA should identify metrics and targets specifically for FCS countries to focus their efforts and track progress in implementing the Bank Group’s FCV strategy. These lessons emerging from IEG’s evaluation can guide the institutions as they advance in their commitments and unlock the full potential of the private sector.  Pictured above: Small Store, Sana'a, Yemen. Photo Credit: Rod Waddington.

The World Bank Group in Chad, 2010 to 2020

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A man leads his cows through the brush, with a mountain range in the background. Photo Credit: Nature Picture Library/Alamy Stock Photo
This evaluation assesses the development effectiveness of the World Bank Group’s country engagement in Chad during Fiscal Years 2010–20. This evaluation assesses the development effectiveness of the World Bank Group’s country engagement in Chad during Fiscal Years 2010–20.

When the financing stops: the World Bank, Chad, and shades of engagement

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When the financing stops: the World Bank, Chad, and shades of engagement
Lessons from evaluation point to the merits of continuing analytical work even when direct financial support is prohibited.Lessons from evaluation point to the merits of continuing analytical work even when direct financial support is prohibited.

Country Program Evaluation - Papua New Guinea: An Evaluation of World Bank Support FY08–22 (Approach Paper)

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This Country Program Evaluation (CPE) will assess the World Bank Group’s engagement in Papua New Guinea between FY08 and FY22. The Papua New Guinea has an abundant resource endowment of oil and mineral wealth, but this wealth has not translated into significant welfare gains for most citizens. Papua New Guinea’s fragmented geography and frequent exposure to disasters caused by natural hazards Show MoreThis Country Program Evaluation (CPE) will assess the World Bank Group’s engagement in Papua New Guinea between FY08 and FY22. The Papua New Guinea has an abundant resource endowment of oil and mineral wealth, but this wealth has not translated into significant welfare gains for most citizens. Papua New Guinea’s fragmented geography and frequent exposure to disasters caused by natural hazards present significant challenges for delivering services to citizens. The evaluation is designed to derive lessons from Bank Group engagement in Papua New Guinea to inform the next Country Partnership Framework (CPF). The CPE will also provide lessons on the implementation of the International Development Association special themes of climate change, gender, and fragility, conflict, and violence and of the cross-cutting issues of debt sustainability and governance and institutions. Lessons may also be of relevance to other resource-rich countries.