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What have we learned about job creation and fisheries projects?

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Residents dry thousands of tiny fish in the sunlight in Jamestown Fishing Village in Accra, Ghana on October 11, 2015. Photo © Dominic Chavez/World Bank
This blog is part of a two-part series based on the results of a Learning Engagement focused on ways to increase the contribution of World Bank crop agriculture and fisheries projects to job creation and economic transformation. Learning Engagements are a collaboration between the Independent Evaluation Group and World Bank Group staff, aimed at maximizing learning from existing evidence to fill Show MoreThis blog is part of a two-part series based on the results of a Learning Engagement focused on ways to increase the contribution of World Bank crop agriculture and fisheries projects to job creation and economic transformation. Learning Engagements are a collaboration between the Independent Evaluation Group and World Bank Group staff, aimed at maximizing learning from existing evidence to fill in knowledge gaps, improve performance and ultimately deliver better development outcomes.

The Natural Resource Degradation and Vulnerability Nexus:

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The Natural Resource Degradation and Vulnerability Nexus:
This evaluation assesses how well the World Bank has addressed natural resource degradation to reduce the vulnerabilities of resource-dependent people. This evaluation assesses how well the World Bank has addressed natural resource degradation to reduce the vulnerabilities of resource-dependent people.

Senegal - Integrated Marine and Coastal Resources Management Project and Sustainable Management of Fish Resources Project

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This Project Performance Assessment Report reviews World Bank support for the sustainable management of fisheries in Senegal over the period of 2004 to 2012, provided by two investment projects: Integrated Marine and Coastal Resources Project (2004-2012) and Sustainable Management of Fish Resources Project (2008-2012). Designed in response to a crisis in the fisheries sector, both projects aimed Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report reviews World Bank support for the sustainable management of fisheries in Senegal over the period of 2004 to 2012, provided by two investment projects: Integrated Marine and Coastal Resources Project (2004-2012) and Sustainable Management of Fish Resources Project (2008-2012). Designed in response to a crisis in the fisheries sector, both projects aimed to enhance the sustainable management of the artisanal fisheries sector. The overall outcome rating of the GIRMAC project is unsatisfactory. The overall outcome of the GDRH project is rated highly unsatisfactory. The experience of the two projects yields the following lessons: (1) Reforming the fisheries sector is a politically sensitive and long-term pursuit, best suited to a phased programmatic approach in which sustained support is ensured over a series of operations. (2) Operationalizing co-management requires actions at both local and national level, lack of synchronization between the two can disrupt implementation and the motivation of key actors. (3) Supporting Alternative Revenue Generating Activities can potentially reduce the poverty-conservation tradeoff by making up for lost income or subsistence opportunities that stem from reduced resource access caused by project activities.

Malawi - Fisheries Development Project

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The audit assessment rates the outcome of this operation as unsatisfactory, institutional development impacts as modest, and sustainability as unlikely. Similarly, the performances by the Bank, and Borrower are rated unsatisfactory. Important lessons drawn from the project, are conveyed as follows. Appraisal correctly Show MoreThe audit assessment rates the outcome of this operation as unsatisfactory, institutional development impacts as modest, and sustainability as unlikely. Similarly, the performances by the Bank, and Borrower are rated unsatisfactory. Important lessons drawn from the project, are conveyed as follows. Appraisal correctly diagnosed the Fisheries Department's capacity as weak, yet overloaded it with complex activities, many ill-equipped to be implemented. Clearly, the unrealistic appraisal of institutional capability, compromised the objectives and components to be achieved. In addition, the hasty reaction to unsubstantiated threats to the sustainability of natural resources, may lead to perverse consequences: the fear of over-fishing was conducive to cancellation of measures promoting deep-water fishing, which increased pressure on fragile inshore fisheries, threatened biodiversity conservation efforts, and hindered poverty eradication. Given the country's constraints, and weak political commitment it is suggested that divestiture of public sector commercial activities, be preceded by a thorough institutional analysis, in order to determine whether sufficient capacity exists within the private sector, particularly where private sector initiatives are missing. Nonetheless, partnership with bilateral development agencies proved successful, namely due to clear roles, and careful procurement rules.

Bangladesh - Third Fisheries Project

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The audit of the Third Fisheries Project agrees with all of the ICR ratings, which are satisfactory on outcome, Bank, and Borrower performance; substantial on institutional development; and uncertain on sustainability. If not for the weaknesses in project design and the consequent need for the substantial cancellation, highly Show MoreThe audit of the Third Fisheries Project agrees with all of the ICR ratings, which are satisfactory on outcome, Bank, and Borrower performance; substantial on institutional development; and uncertain on sustainability. If not for the weaknesses in project design and the consequent need for the substantial cancellation, highly satisfactory ratings would have been considered. The project offers four main lessons. First, proactive supervision from a field office, along with technical input and donor coordination, can play a large role in achieving objectives. Second, it is possible to be successful in local community management of a large water body, provided there is local participation with NGOs, good technical input, and a strong government committment. Third, mechanisms for cost recovery and clarifiation of operation and maintenance responsibilities for structure should be resolved in advance of investments. Finally, although untested approaches ideally should be tried first, there are cases where simply "going for it" is justified.

Maldives - Fisheries Project

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This is a performance audit on the Fisheries Development Project in Burundi, for which credit was approved in May 1976. The actual credit closing date was May 17, 1983, almost a year later than envisaged at appraisal, and the undisbursed balance was cancelled. The main objectives of the project were to raise the standard of Show MoreThis is a performance audit on the Fisheries Development Project in Burundi, for which credit was approved in May 1976. The actual credit closing date was May 17, 1983, almost a year later than envisaged at appraisal, and the undisbursed balance was cancelled. The main objectives of the project were to raise the standard of living of artisanal fishermen along Burundi' L e Tanyika shore by increasing their fish production, and to market fish throughout the country, thus raising protein intakes and thereby improving the nutrition of rural consumers. In addition, the project aimed to produce a regional development plan for the lakeshore area and to initiate pilot development activities. The generally poor performance of the project can be attributed to a number of factors, pointing to important lessons for the future: 1) project preparation was defective in terms of both time and technical expertise and failed to take full account of the inadequacy of local managerial and technical skills and there was a need for a simple and phased development program; 2) the project received insufficient technical assistance to offset the adverse impact of poor management. Sufficient funds were available, but only about one-third were utilized, partly because of recruitment difficulties, but mainly because of Government/ Societe -Usine de Poissons de Burundi (SUPOBU) procrastination and disinclination to use the services of expatriates; 3) initial disbursement delays could have been avoided had a staff member from the loan administration department accompanied an early supervision mission to explain Bank procedures to the local staff concerned; and 4) the impact on the project of other Bank sponsored developments, in particular the reconstruction of the lakeside highway from Bujumbura to Nyanzalac.

Burundi - Fisheries Development Project

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This is a performance audit on the Fisheries Development Project in Burundi, for which credit was approved in May 1976. The actual credit closing date was May 17, 1983, almost a year later than envisaged at appraisal, and the undisbursed balance was cancelled. The main objectives of the project were to raise the standard of Show MoreThis is a performance audit on the Fisheries Development Project in Burundi, for which credit was approved in May 1976. The actual credit closing date was May 17, 1983, almost a year later than envisaged at appraisal, and the undisbursed balance was cancelled. The main objectives of the project were to raise the standard of living of artisanal fishermen along Burundi' L e Tanyika shore by increasing their fish production, and to market fish throughout the country, thus raising protein intakes and thereby improving the nutrition of rural consumers. In addition, the project aimed to produce a regional development plan for the lakeshore area and to initiate pilot development activities. The generally poor performance of the project can be attributed to a number of factors, pointing to important lessons for the future: 1) project preparation was defective in terms of both time and technical expertise and failed to take full account of the inadequacy of local managerial and technical skills and there was a need for a simple and phased development program; 2) the project received insufficient technical assistance to offset the adverse impact of poor management. Sufficient funds were available, but only about one-third were utilized, partly because of recruitment difficulties, but mainly because of Government/ Societe -Usine de Poissons de Burundi (SUPOBU) procrastination and disinclination to use the services of expatriates; 3) initial disbursement delays could have been avoided had a staff member from the loan administration department accompanied an early supervision mission to explain Bank procedures to the local staff concerned; and 4) the impact on the project of other Bank sponsored developments, in particular the reconstruction of the lakeside highway from Bujumbura to Nyanzalac.

Mauritania - Private Sector Development, Private Sector Development and Capacity Building, Public Resource Management, and Fiscal Reform Support Credits

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The objective of the Private Sector Development Credit (PSDC) and the Private Sector Development and Capacity Building Credit (PSDCBC) for Mauritania, was to accelerate private sector development (PSD) by addressing the constraints still remaining after the resumption of adjustment efforts in 1992. The four operations aimed at promoting the development of the private sector as a major engine of Show MoreThe objective of the Private Sector Development Credit (PSDC) and the Private Sector Development and Capacity Building Credit (PSDCBC) for Mauritania, was to accelerate private sector development (PSD) by addressing the constraints still remaining after the resumption of adjustment efforts in 1992. The four operations aimed at promoting the development of the private sector as a major engine of growth and at improving public resource management to reduce poverty. PSDC and its accompanying technical assistance project, the PSDCBC, addressed three areas: (i) costly delays in implementing key reforms in the banking and fisheries sectors; (ii) a lower than expected supply response from the private sector; and (iii) persistent weaknesses in public resource management. The Public Resource Management Credit (PRMC) of 1996 addressed the following: (i) strengthening of economic management, institutional capacity, and governance; (ii) public resource management through a reform of the indirect tax and trade systems; and (iii) the restructuring of expenditure in favor of the social sectors. The Fiscal Reform Support Credit (FRSC) of 2000 aimed at: (i) extending the tax reform to direct taxes to promote PSD and improve Mauritania ' s competitiveness on world markets and (ii) deepening expenditure restructuring.

Mauritania - Private Sector Development, Private Sector Development and Capacity Building, Public Resource Management, and Fiscal Reform Support Credits

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The objective of the Private Sector Development Credit (PSDC) and the Private Sector Development and Capacity Building Credit (PSDCBC) for Mauritania, was to accelerate private sector development (PSD) by addressing the constraints still remaining after the resumption of adjustment efforts in 1992. The four operations aimed at promoting the development of the private sector as a major engine of Show MoreThe objective of the Private Sector Development Credit (PSDC) and the Private Sector Development and Capacity Building Credit (PSDCBC) for Mauritania, was to accelerate private sector development (PSD) by addressing the constraints still remaining after the resumption of adjustment efforts in 1992. The four operations aimed at promoting the development of the private sector as a major engine of growth and at improving public resource management to reduce poverty. PSDC and its accompanying technical assistance project, the PSDCBC, addressed three areas: (i) costly delays in implementing key reforms in the banking and fisheries sectors; (ii) a lower than expected supply response from the private sector; and (iii) persistent weaknesses in public resource management. The Public Resource Management Credit (PRMC) of 1996 addressed the following: (i) strengthening of economic management, institutional capacity, and governance; (ii) public resource management through a reform of the indirect tax and trade systems; and (iii) the restructuring of expenditure in favor of the social sectors. The Fiscal Reform Support Credit (FRSC) of 2000 aimed at: (i) extending the tax reform to direct taxes to promote PSD and improve Mauritania ' s competitiveness on world markets and (ii) deepening expenditure restructuring.

Maldives - Country Assistance Evaluation

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This Country Assistance Evaluation (CAE) reviews the social, and economic progress over the past two decades in Maldives, providing a brief evaluation to serve as background for Country Assistance Strategy discussions, raising questions, but not necessarily providing in depth analyses of Bank experience. Over this period, the Bank role was positive, though limited, having provided valuable Show MoreThis Country Assistance Evaluation (CAE) reviews the social, and economic progress over the past two decades in Maldives, providing a brief evaluation to serve as background for Country Assistance Strategy discussions, raising questions, but not necessarily providing in depth analyses of Bank experience. Over this period, the Bank role was positive, though limited, having provided valuable external overview of the economy through the Bank ' s economic reports, as well as significant contributions to manpower development through education projects; in infrastructure through the upgrade of the airport in Male; and, in the fisheries sector, through modernization projects, which strengthened public sector capacity in fish processing, and exporting. However, questions remain on the extent of public sector monopoly, since fisheries sector growth is still significantly inhibited. Thus, while the outcome of Bank assistance over the period is rated satisfactory, sustainability is considered uncertain, and institutional development impacts moderate. Recommendations suggest phasing out the public sector from direct commercial activities, while strengthening the Government ' s capacity to monitor, and regulate private activity, and, establish safety nets to replace current public sector involvement.