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Kazakhstan Country Assistance Evaluation

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This Country Assistance Evaluation (CAE) assesses the Bank assistance to Kazakhstan, from December 1991, when the country secured its independence, to March 2000. Through adjustment lending, and some investment lending/technical assistance, the Bank supported macroeconomic stabilization, structural reform to develop competitive markets, public sector reform, and social protection, with further Show MoreThis Country Assistance Evaluation (CAE) assesses the Bank assistance to Kazakhstan, from December 1991, when the country secured its independence, to March 2000. Through adjustment lending, and some investment lending/technical assistance, the Bank supported macroeconomic stabilization, structural reform to develop competitive markets, public sector reform, and social protection, with further lending in the transport, energy, and agriculture. Additionally, investments were approved by the International Finance Corporation (IFC), namely in the financial sector. The adjustment lending was successful in promoting policy reforms, prices and trade were liberalized, and, much of the economy has been privatized. However, the severe economic, and social deterioration, led to a drop in the per capita GDP of forty percent, poverty raised, and major social indicators worsened. This rapid decline in GDP was caused by the dislocations of the early years of transition, which could not have been prevented; however, the Bank, and donor community ' s expectations were overly optimistic, in that the transition to a market economy, could be accomplished in a short time, at a low social cost. Thus, on balance, the assistance program is rated partially satisfactory, with only modest contributions to institutional development, and an uncertain sustainability. Recommendations to foster development suggest social assistance programs; public financial accountability; and, private sector development.

Burkina Faso Country Assistance Evaluation

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This Country Assistance Evaluation examines assistance to Burkina Faso during the past ten years. One of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina Faso is landlocked, with a high population growth rate and HIV prevalence, poor soil, and inadequate rainfall. Against these steep odds, International Development Association (IDA) assistance since the late 1980s has had a marginally satisfactory Show MoreThis Country Assistance Evaluation examines assistance to Burkina Faso during the past ten years. One of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina Faso is landlocked, with a high population growth rate and HIV prevalence, poor soil, and inadequate rainfall. Against these steep odds, International Development Association (IDA) assistance since the late 1980s has had a marginally satisfactory outcome, with substantial achievements in the education, urban, and transport sectors, but more mediocre performance on structural adjustment, health, and agriculture. Future IDA assistance should focus on helping to establish a framework for donor coordination, limiting population growth and AIDS, fostering private sector development and improved governance, continuing support for primary education, as well as literacy training, promoting appropriate technology for environmentally appropriate dryland agronomy, and a reorganization of the cotton sector.

Costa Rica Country Assistance Evaluation

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This Country Assistance Evaluation (CAE) assesses the Banks assistance strategy for Costa Rica, based on the influence the strategy had for the 1980s on determining the relevance, and effectiveness of the 1990s strategy. To assess this relevance, the CAE examines the diagnosis of the country ' s long-term development problems, at the time of the last Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) Board Show MoreThis Country Assistance Evaluation (CAE) assesses the Banks assistance strategy for Costa Rica, based on the influence the strategy had for the 1980s on determining the relevance, and effectiveness of the 1990s strategy. To assess this relevance, the CAE examines the diagnosis of the country ' s long-term development problems, at the time of the last Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) Board approval, in 1993, analyzing as well the objectives of the 1993 strategy, and their relationship with its lending, and non-lending instruments. Costa Rica is one of the most stable democracies in Latin America, committed to economic growth, social welfare, and the environment. Nonetheless, the country ' s economic, and social progress has been vulnerable to external shocks, and policy reform to the electoral cycle, and, high domestic debt has troubled macroeconomic management, with serious financial imbalances emerging in 1990, which led to the 1994-95 crisis, questioning the long-term viability of the Costa Rican model. The report outlines unsatisfactory strategic outcomes, and identifies initial design flaws, faulty because it included inappropriate adjustment lending instruments, and poorly designed reforms, including the passing of legislation as a condition to be met after Board approval, and before loan effectiveness. Recommendations include the preparation of a new CAS, with a continued promotion of structural reforms, and a broadened lending, and economic and sector work programs, in coordination with other bilateral/multilateral agencies.

Four Lessons from the Sahel on Land Restoration Programs and their Impact on Vulnerable Populations

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Four Lessons from the Sahel on Land Restoration Programs and their Impact on Vulnerable Populations
World Bank Group support to developing countries to manage their natural resources is critical for poverty reduction. A recent IEG evaluation assessed how well the World Bank has addressed natural resource degradation to reduce the vulnerabilities of resource-dependent people. On Desertification and Drought Day, we present the following four lessons drawn from IEG's assessment of World Bank Show MoreWorld Bank Group support to developing countries to manage their natural resources is critical for poverty reduction. A recent IEG evaluation assessed how well the World Bank has addressed natural resource degradation to reduce the vulnerabilities of resource-dependent people. On Desertification and Drought Day, we present the following four lessons drawn from IEG's assessment of World Bank support for the Great Green Wall. Decades ago, several African Heads of State envisioned, and eventually lent their support to, the development of a Great Green Wall: a large belt of trees that stretches across twelve states of the Sahel. The concept of the Great Green Wall was developed to combat land degradation and desertification of the Sahel, a concept that has grown in importance as the threats posed by climate change intensify. Twenty-one African countries have signed on to the initiative, along with at least 11 international partners; including the African Union, European Union, and the World Bank.    These are four key lessons that can inform future investments in the Great Green Wall:   1. A precise understanding of the change in vegetation cover across the Sahel, attributable to donor investments in the Great Green Wall, has been limited because of an underinvestment in measurement. Earth observations combined with site observations show that the World Bank’s support for the Great Green Wall has been successful. Vegetation has been successfully established, land has been rehabilitated, and the density of trees and shrubs have increased dramatically at rehabilitation sites. However, projects did not implement measurement mechanisms to establish how much of the increase of vegetation can be attributed to donor programs versus other important variables including changing rainfall.   Watch: Discussion on the role of increased rainfall on the greening of the Sahel and the need for sustainable practices with professor Matt Turner, from the Department of Geology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Oumarou Moumouni, member of the development NGO Groupe de Recherche, d'Etudes d'Action pour le Développement in Niger.  {"preview_thumbnail":"/sites/default/files/Data/styles/video_embed_wysiwyg_preview/public/video_thumbnails/9D0oF2fUcu4.jpg?itok=BZuE1M4A","video_url":"https://youtu.be/9D0oF2fUcu4","settings":{"responsive":0,"width":"854","height":"480","autoplay":0},"settings_summary":["Embedded Video (854x480)."]} 2. Land management practices that seek to restore degraded land can run the risk of exacerbating vulnerability. Just prior to the coronavirus pandemic, there were 30 million food insecure people in the Sahel. This large cohort consists of farmers, agro-pastoral, and nomadic populations – all of whom engage in traditional land-use arrangements that provide mutual food and livelihood benefits. In these settings, even the most degraded land has value: these are important areas of passage and grazing for livestock, particularly during the rainy season, and are sources of wild plants and wood gathered by women. But the use of area enclosures – a land management practice that seeks to restore degraded land by excluding livestock and humans from openly accessing it in the short to medium term – runs the risk of exacerbating vulnerability; and in the absence of good land governance, possibly causing harm  Watch: IEG’s evaluation analyst Joy Butscher explains some of the impacts of land management practices on pastoral populations.   {"preview_thumbnail":"/sites/default/files/Data/styles/video_embed_wysiwyg_preview/public/video_thumbnails/n_vBYKCnMkA.jpg?itok=hb5_7ceT","video_url":"https://youtu.be/n_vBYKCnMkA","settings":{"responsive":0,"width":"854","height":"480","autoplay":0},"settings_summary":["Embedded Video (854x480)."]} 3. Increasing the value of degraded land can lead to predation by elites and to encroachment by non-traditional farmers, which risks displacing the local population.   Such was the case in Niger, where land was effectively restored, but where parcels were also sold outside of the community, in areas that lacked good land governance. Predation also occurs as a result of decisions to support crop agriculture alongside tree planting. While land restoration activities took place on communal land, the introduction of “inter cropping” facilitated individualized claims on community land. Projects should be designed with an understanding of customary, flexible tenure arrangements and the coping strategies of vulnerable resource users who access degraded lands as a social safety net.  Importantly, that emphasis should be placed on ensuring that clear, enforceable land-use agreements are in place prior to land restoration activities, to protect the land-use rights of the most vulnerable.  Watch: Professor Matt Turner, from the Department of Geology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, on land governance in Niger. {"preview_thumbnail":"/sites/default/files/Data/styles/video_embed_wysiwyg_preview/public/video_thumbnails/xGRxN2Gb0tU.jpg?itok=eRlfPMp2","video_url":"https://youtu.be/xGRxN2Gb0tU","settings":{"responsive":0,"width":"854","height":"480","autoplay":0},"settings_summary":["Embedded Video (854x480)."]}  4. Because land restoration mainly benefits those that have access to land, some women and youth are especially disadvantaged in the Sahel.   In Niger, a very large number of women are forced to fend for themselves and their families because their husbands and sons have migrated to other West African countries to look for work. Projects that support land and resource restoration can ensure that women and youth benefit by addressing participation barriers, linked to social and cultural norms. For example, since in some conservative areas, some women’s participation in cash for work programs is prohibited, programs must propose alternative income generating options to ensure equity.  Watch: Oumou Moumouni, from the UN Office for the Coordination of Human Affairs speaks of the disadvantages women face in the Sahel. {"preview_thumbnail":"/sites/default/files/Data/styles/video_embed_wysiwyg_preview/public/video_thumbnails/TyL0DXPV2LA.jpg?itok=Vo1IqiJT","video_url":"https://youtu.be/TyL0DXPV2LA","settings":{"responsive":0,"width":"854","height":"480","autoplay":0},"settings_summary":["Embedded Video (854x480)."]}   Photo credit:  Rafe H Andrews, Dawning

Uruguay Country Assistance Evaluation

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This Country Assistance Evaluation concludes that the 1997 country assistance strategy (CAS) for Uruguay was based on a good diagnosis of economic, social, and political issues in the country. The strategy adequately recognized the role of other lending institutions and effectively reflected evaluation lessons. The strategy was elaborated after a period of relatively difficult dialogue that led Show MoreThis Country Assistance Evaluation concludes that the 1997 country assistance strategy (CAS) for Uruguay was based on a good diagnosis of economic, social, and political issues in the country. The strategy adequately recognized the role of other lending institutions and effectively reflected evaluation lessons. The strategy was elaborated after a period of relatively difficult dialogue that led to negative net disbursements during 1993-97, but the region has implemented a highly effective assistance strategy since then. Consequently, the results from the Bank ' s recent experience show highly satisfactory development outcome. The agenda for development, however, is still large and the economy is highly vulnerable to changes in terms of trade, capital flows, and the economic performance of Brazil and Argentina, while banking institutions are weak and poorly regulated. This vulnerability and the incomplete development agenda have led the government to be appropriately concerned with seeing a repeat of negative net disbursements in the near future. The study recommends: 1) The Bank should continue to have flexibility in the design of operations and appropriate timing of actions. 2) The CAS for fiscal year 2001-04 should continue to support access to education. 3) The CAS should continue to support private sector development and financial markets.

L'aide de la banque mondiale aux pays de la zone CFA

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Ghana Country Assistance Evaluation

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The report evaluates the World Bank's assistance program in Ghana.The report evaluates the World Bank's assistance program in Ghana.

India Country Assistance Evaluation

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This evaluation assesses the development effectiveness of Bank assistance to India during the 1990s. India was one of the Bank´s founding members and remains one of its largest and most influential borrowers. The Bank has been India´s largest source of external long-term capital and has financed a sizeable share of its public investment. Its lending and non lending services have been thinly Show MoreThis evaluation assesses the development effectiveness of Bank assistance to India during the 1990s. India was one of the Bank´s founding members and remains one of its largest and most influential borrowers. The Bank has been India´s largest source of external long-term capital and has financed a sizeable share of its public investment. Its lending and non lending services have been thinly spread over many central and state agencies and have addressed many different objectives.

Egypt - Country Assistance Evaluation

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The focus of this evaluation is on the period since 1990. Until 1990, lending was concentrated on investments in industry and finance, infrastructure, power, and agriculture. Starting in 1991, the Bank's strategy shifted to policy-based lending in support of Egypt's reform program. Lending in the 1990s has been concentrated on social funds, education, health, and rural development. The Bank's Show MoreThe focus of this evaluation is on the period since 1990. Until 1990, lending was concentrated on investments in industry and finance, infrastructure, power, and agriculture. Starting in 1991, the Bank's strategy shifted to policy-based lending in support of Egypt's reform program. Lending in the 1990s has been concentrated on social funds, education, health, and rural development. The Bank's impact on the reform program was primarily through the Structural Adjustment Loan, the Structural Adjustment Monitoring Program and support for Paris Club debt reductions. The assistance has had a satisfactory and likely sustainable outcome, but one important gap has been the absence of work on a strategy to alleviate poverty. At a sectoral level, results have been mixed. Irrigation and drainage and the social fund have had good outcomes, although the sustainability of the social fund is uncertain; in power and industry, the outcome of recent Bank assistance has been unsatisfactory. Bank assistance to Egypt has been more costly than in other countries because of the high cost of dropped projects. Overall, taking into account macroeconomic and sectoral activities, the outcome of Bank assistance in the 1990s is rated as marginally satisfactory, with uncertain sustainability and modest institutional support.

Azerbaijan Country Assistance Evaluation

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