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Report/Evaluation Type:Project Level Evaluations (PPARs)
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Albania: Secondary and Local Roads Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Secondary and Local Roads Project in Albania approved in 2008. The project development objective was to improve access to essential services and economic markets via the provision of all-weather roads for the resident population in the rural areas of Albania. This would be achieved through Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Secondary and Local Roads Project in Albania approved in 2008. The project development objective was to improve access to essential services and economic markets via the provision of all-weather roads for the resident population in the rural areas of Albania. This would be achieved through reconstructing selected secondary and local roads; building the competencies of the implementation agency Albanian Development Fund (ADF); building an asset management system for the secondary and local road networks; and improving capacity in the local community for maintenance. Ratings for the Secondary and Local Roads Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome as moderate, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) Implementing a successful multidonor programmatic approach to sector development requires the combination of government commitment with credible planning and common rules of engagement. (ii) Concentrating competencies within one agency may frustrate future decentralization of responsibilities. (iii) In the absence of need-based and credible linkages to resource allocation, a road asset management system may not get sufficient traction.

Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Sao Tome, Principe: Internet and Mobile Connectivity (Central African Backbone Program APL 1A and APL 2) (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Central Africa Backbone Project Adaptable Program Loan (APL) 1A implemented in three countries: Cameroon, Central African Republic and Chad; and the Central Africa Backbone Project APL 2 implemented in Sao Tome and Principe. The objectives of the projects were to help Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Central Africa Backbone Project Adaptable Program Loan (APL) 1A implemented in three countries: Cameroon, Central African Republic and Chad; and the Central Africa Backbone Project APL 2 implemented in Sao Tome and Principe. The objectives of the projects were to help to increase the geographical reach and usage of regional broadband network services and reduce their prices to end-users. Ratings for these projects are as follows: Outcome is unsatisfactory, Risk to development outcome is substantial, Bank and Borrow performance are both moderately unsatisfactory. For APL 2, the ratings are: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome is substantial, Bank performance is satisfactory, and Borrow performance is moderately satisfactory. Lessons from the projects include: (i) A thorough political economy assessment and high-level national and regional commitment are key ingredients for complex regional ICT projects. (ii) The experience from the Central Africa Backbone APL 1 and 2 project shows that public private partnership arrangements are difficult to implement in multiple countries, particularly when countries have asymmetrical needs and incentives with respect to increasing competition for the provision of international and national capacity. (iii) Technical assistance for the preparation of legislation and sector strategies is only the first step to creating an enabling environment for the ICT sector. (iv) Assessing and funding the capacity needs of Regional Economic Communities is important for project coordination and implementation, so that they can carry out their functions effectively. (v) In weak capacity environments, it is beneficial that the projects build the needed institutional capacity for the Borrower to further / implement the crucial reforms and to ensure sustainability of the investments in the country.

Ethiopia: Urban Local Government Development Project (PPAR)

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This is the Project Performance Assessment Report for the Urban Local Government Development Project (ULGDP) in Ethiopia, which was approved by the World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors on May 29, 2008, and closed on December 31, 2014. The project’s development objective was to support improved performance in the planning, delivery, and sustained provision of priority municipal services and Show MoreThis is the Project Performance Assessment Report for the Urban Local Government Development Project (ULGDP) in Ethiopia, which was approved by the World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors on May 29, 2008, and closed on December 31, 2014. The project’s development objective was to support improved performance in the planning, delivery, and sustained provision of priority municipal services and infrastructure by urban local governments across the country. Ratings for Urban Local Government Development Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was negligible to low, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) There is a trade‐off between scope and development outcomes in municipal operations that use performance‐based grants. It is critical to ensure that funding is sufficient to both incentivize behavior at the city level and offer a meaningful level of technical assistance. (ii) A one‐size‐fits‐all approach is ineffective in urban development projects that target multiple cities at various stages of development. (iii) Performance‐based grants should be considered as a preferred method of intermediating intergovernmental fiscal resources to urban local governments in the context of emerging urban systems. (iv) Promoting autonomous decision making at the city level although ensuring that operational rules and supervision are in place is a necessary condition to ensuring the intended use of funds in municipal finance projects. (v) Urban development projects need to balance targeting core city administrative functions as well as improving city management and planning competencies.

Macedonia, former Yugoslav Republic of: Regional and Local Roads Program Support Project (PPAR)

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This PPAR assesses the development effectiveness of the Regional and Local Roads Program Support project in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYR Macedonia), which was approved in 2008. The original development objective of the project, “to reduce cost of access to markets and services for communities served by regional and local roads,” was revised through a level I Show MoreThis PPAR assesses the development effectiveness of the Regional and Local Roads Program Support project in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYR Macedonia), which was approved in 2008. The original development objective of the project, “to reduce cost of access to markets and services for communities served by regional and local roads,” was revised through a level I restructuring in 2013 “to reduce the cost of safe access to markets and services for communities served by regional and local roads in FYR Macedonia’s territory, and to improve institutional capacity for investment planning and road safety.” The revised objective thus introduced the element of road safety to access, as well as institutional capacity for investment planning and road safety. Ratings for the Regional and Local Roads Program Support Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was substantial, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) Objective criteria developed and applied in a participatory manner can support a transparent framework to allocate investments and maintenance funds in the roads sector. (ii) The decentralization of responsibilities to local governments needs to be accompanied by the availability of commensurate resources and capacity building. (iii) Road safety and road design elements need to be jointly integrated into the project design and monitoring framework to mitigate risks to the effectiveness of road projects. (iv) Road project appraisal requires sufficient time and technical due diligence to ensure effective and timely project implementation.

Bhutan: Strengthening Regional Cooperation for Wildlife Protection in Asia: Phase II of the Adaptable Program Loan (PPAR)

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South Asia is home to 13–15 percent of the Earth’s floral and faunal biodiversity, including some of its most iconic and endangered wildlife species, such as tigers, snow leopards, one-horn rhinoceroses, elephants, pangolins, and brown bears, all of which are on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature’s Red List of Threatened Species (2017). Among the South Asian countries Show MoreSouth Asia is home to 13–15 percent of the Earth’s floral and faunal biodiversity, including some of its most iconic and endangered wildlife species, such as tigers, snow leopards, one-horn rhinoceroses, elephants, pangolins, and brown bears, all of which are on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature’s Red List of Threatened Species (2017). Among the South Asian countries, Bhutan has a high density and an extraordinary range of species (more than 5,000 vascular plants, 600 birds, and nearly 200 mammals). This biodiversity is extremely important to the patrimony of Bhutan and to the economy and well-being of its people. At project appraisal in 2011, the South Asian region was facing several threats to its wildlife, including rapid loss of critical natural habitats, increasing poaching of wildlife, and expanding illegal trade in wildlife and wildlife products driven largely by consumer demand in East Asia. The project’s objective was “to assist the Recipient in building and/or enhancing shared capacity, institutions, knowledge, and incentives to tackle illegal wildlife trade and other selected regional conservation threats to habitats in border areas. Ratings for the project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development was moderate, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. IEG’s review of the project’s experience suggests the following lessons: (i) Robust upstream work that builds strong and sustained commitment by all governments participating in a regional approach to wildlife protection is a necessary condition for success. (ii) Projects involving multicountry collaboration on global public goods are challenging to design and implement, making the provision of adequate preparation time critical for conducting necessary analyses of participating country commitments and capacities. (iii) Projects piloting new approaches to multicountry collaboration on transboundary wildlife management present challenges that require a carefully designed results framework to measure and track progress in achieving project objectives. (iv) Projects designed to build national institutions and capacity for multicountry collaboration on transboundary wildlife management require a long-term investment to ensure successful outcomes.

Mozambique: Southern Africa Regional Gas Project (PPAR)

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When the Southern Africa Regional Gas Project (SARGP) was approved in November 2003, Mozambique had seen strong economic growth since the end of the civil war in 1992 but faced challenges in improving its business environment and attracting foreign investment. Although Mozambique’s gas reserves had been discovered in the 1960s, they remained undeveloped. The World Bank had provided advice and Show MoreWhen the Southern Africa Regional Gas Project (SARGP) was approved in November 2003, Mozambique had seen strong economic growth since the end of the civil war in 1992 but faced challenges in improving its business environment and attracting foreign investment. Although Mozambique’s gas reserves had been discovered in the 1960s, they remained undeveloped. The World Bank had provided advice and technical assistance to help develop the gas fields since 1991. In 2000, the government signed an agreement with the South African petrochemical company, Sasol, under which Sasol would develop the gas reserves in Mozambique and export natural gas to South Africa over a 25-year period. The stated objective of the SARGP was to help: “initiate the development and export of Mozambique’s substantial natural gas resources in an environmentally sustainable manner, thereby contributing towards economic growth and poverty reduction in Mozambique.” The project ratings are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was negligible to low, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from this experience include: (i) The PRG instrument can provide distinct risk mitigation to support a first-of-kind public-private partnership project in an untested policy and regulatory environment. (ii) Even as a late entrant into a project’s financing structure, the Bank Group can leverage its presence to enhance E&S safeguards and community development initiatives. (iii) Some flexibility in concession agreements to review price mechanism clauses in the event of extreme divergence from initial assumptions can help enhance long-term viability of a public-private partnership project. (iv) Coordination of corporate local community development initiatives with local government programs can help enhance their sustainability. (v) Proactive measures by the sponsor company to develop local suppliers are likely to be needed to ensure upstream linkages in extractive industry projects.

Rwanda: Urban Infrastructure and City Management Project (UICMP) (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report reviews the Rwanda Urban Infrastructure and City Management Project (UICMP). The project was approved on November 10, 2005 and became effective on June 2, 2006. The project’s original closing date of March 31, 2009, was extended by nine months to December 31, 2009. The project was financed by an International Development Association (IDA) grant ($20 Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report reviews the Rwanda Urban Infrastructure and City Management Project (UICMP). The project was approved on November 10, 2005 and became effective on June 2, 2006. The project’s original closing date of March 31, 2009, was extended by nine months to December 31, 2009. The project was financed by an International Development Association (IDA) grant ($20 million) and a Professional Human Resource Development grant ($0.46 million), and contributions from the government of Rwanda ($2.6 million). The Nordic Development Fund provided parallel financing ($6.4 million). The project development objective (PDO) was to increase access to urban infrastructure and services in the primary city of Kigali and the two secondary cities of Butare and Ruhengeri through physical investment and upgrading and improved management tools. Ratings for this project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Main lessons from this operation are as follows: (i) The World Bank’s absence in a sector creates knowledge and implementation gaps for both World Bank and client, requiring significant catch-up transaction costs. (ii) Using a delegated management agency to address the weak implementation capacity of local governments requires a focus on building such capacity and a clear exit strategy to ensure long-term sustainability. (iii) To maximize learning from pilot project components, their lessons should be documented and disseminated to inform the future work of the World Bank and government.

Bolivia: Rural Alliances Project (PPAR)

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Around the turn of the millennium, based on lessons learned from projects in Bolivia and elsewhere, the World Bank began tinkering with the model of decentralized, community-driven development, trying to make it a more effective vehicle for boosting incomes generated by private sector productive activities in poor rural areas. The conviction was growing that past efforts to raise production Show MoreAround the turn of the millennium, based on lessons learned from projects in Bolivia and elsewhere, the World Bank began tinkering with the model of decentralized, community-driven development, trying to make it a more effective vehicle for boosting incomes generated by private sector productive activities in poor rural areas. The conviction was growing that past efforts to raise production incomes had underperformed because they had not, at the project design phase, paid enough attention to the potential of existing—and, more importantly, new—markets, nor had they developed ways to better link small-scale producers to those markets. The rural alliances model has now been applied to 18 operations in 10 countries throughout the Latin America and Caribbean Region. It seeks to promote links between buyers and organized groups of poor rural producers. The objective of the project, as stated in the development credit agreement, was to test a model to improve accessibility to markets for poor rural producers in pilot areas. Ratings for the project as follows: Outcomes was highly satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was negligible to low, Bank performance was highly satisfactory, and Borrower performance was highly satisfactory. IEG draws six lessons from the assessment: (i) In a country such as Bolivia, where the productivity of small-scale producers is low and there is substantial scope for increasing sales to the domestic market, the first step for a productive alliance is to boost the quantity and quality of the marketed surplus. (ii) Once producer groups are well organized, alliances can help producers obtain sustainable, postproject finance, enhancing the sustainability of the alliance arrangement. (iii) Project management can be greatly enhanced when strict quality controls are applied by independent parties, without political interference. (iv) Technical assistance works best when it is based on a flexible menu that accommodates the varied capacity building needs of different subprojects. (v) Agile disbursement of project funds enhances beneficiary commitment and increases the efficiency of subproject implementation. (vi) Having a knowledgeable national coordinator who helps design the project and provides long-term leadership greatly enhances the achievement of project objectives.

Bolivia: Reducing Maternal and Infant Mortality: A multi-project evaluation of 16 years of World Bank support to the health sector (PPAR)

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Bolivia’s poor maternal and child health outcomes were of great concern in the 1990s. Infant and child mortality rates were 67 and 92 per 1,000 live births in 1998, and maternal mortality was 390 per 100,000 live births, risking Bolivia’s achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The capacities of the Bolivian health system were insufficient to respond to the need for health care Show MoreBolivia’s poor maternal and child health outcomes were of great concern in the 1990s. Infant and child mortality rates were 67 and 92 per 1,000 live births in 1998, and maternal mortality was 390 per 100,000 live births, risking Bolivia’s achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The capacities of the Bolivian health system were insufficient to respond to the need for health care access, availability, affordability, quality, and equity. Health facilities lacked essential drugs and equipment needed to provide good care. In addition to scarce and inefficiently distributed health workers, heath staff were often poorly trained, compromising the quality of treatment. The Expanded Immunization program had too little funding, poor communication strategies, and unreliable data, which led to declining immunization rates starting in 1996. Cultural and economic barriers limited demand for both preventive and curative care. The World Bank supported the government’s health sector reforms through a series of Adaptable Program Loans (APLs) over 16 years, including the 1999 Health Sector Reform Project, 2001 Second Phase of the Health Sector Reform Program, and 2008 Expanding Access to Reduce Health Inequities. The reforms supported by these projects are the subject of this Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR). This report spans three projects. Ratings for the first project, Health Sector Reform (APL 1) is as follows: Outcome is satisfactory, risk to development outcome is moderate, Bank and Borrower performance is both moderately satisfactory. Ratings for the second project, Sector Phase of the Health Sector Reform Program (APL II) is as follows: Outcome is moderately satisfactory, risk to development outcome is moderate, Bank and Borrower performance is both moderately satisfactory. Ratings for the third project, Expanding Access to Reduce Health Inequities (APL III) is as follows: Outcome is moderately satisfactory, risk to development outcome is moderate, Bank and Borrower performance is both moderately satisfactory. Lessons from these projects include: (i) The definition of a common results framework is useful to align the efforts of different government levels. (ii) A robust results-based approach needs to define a clear mechanism of rewards/sanctions to function well. Otherwise it risks turning into a mere monitoring tool that could lead to perverse incentives. (iii) Project design coordinating efforts with parallel programs that have similar goals has a great potential for efficiency, but it raises methodological concerns about the attribution of outcomes. (iv) While continued focus on quality objectives is certainly commendable, it needs to be accompanied by more robust outcome measures to prove quality enhancements. (v) Programmatic approaches are suitable where sector knowledge is strong, program objectives are long-term and clear, and country ownership is established. (vi) Ambitious projects partially relying on a government promise to pass a reform law are likely to need a restructuring. Reallocation of project funds in response to ad hoc government requests may lessen the logic of the results chain and risk the M&E framework from providing sufficient evidence of project achievements.

Uruguay: Noncommunicable Diseases Prevention Project (PPAR)

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This is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) of the World Bank Group on the Noncommunicable Diseases (NCD) Prevention Project. The project was selected for a PPAR to capture lessons from one of the first exclusively NCD-focused projects supported by the World Bank. Ratings for the Noncommunicable Disease Prevention Project are Show MoreThis is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) of the World Bank Group on the Noncommunicable Diseases (NCD) Prevention Project. The project was selected for a PPAR to capture lessons from one of the first exclusively NCD-focused projects supported by the World Bank. Ratings for the Noncommunicable Disease Prevention Project are as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to Development Outcome was substantial, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Four lessons emerged: i) Preventing NCDs requires a multidimensional approach that goes beyond strengthening the role of MSP and health services. ii) Projects implemented during important reform processes must take into consideration the timing of the reform and adjust project expectations and ambitions accordingly. (iii) Projects with a strong focus on capacity building need to be more realistic about what can be achieved within the project lifetime. (iv) Innovative projects like the PPENT should devote more attention to capture learning from implementation.