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Report/Evaluation Type:Project Level Evaluations (PPARs)
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Mali - Rural Community Development Project

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This is a project performance review of the Rural Community Development Project (PACR) financed by the International Development Association (IDA) and implemented between 2005 and 2014 across four regions of Mali. Original financing was anticipated to be US$64 million including a US$60 million IDA credit and US$4 million borrower contribution. Actual costs were US$71.2 million because of two Show MoreThis is a project performance review of the Rural Community Development Project (PACR) financed by the International Development Association (IDA) and implemented between 2005 and 2014 across four regions of Mali. Original financing was anticipated to be US$64 million including a US$60 million IDA credit and US$4 million borrower contribution. Actual costs were US$71.2 million because of two additional financings. The project sought to improve the living conditions of rural communities by providing access to basic socioeconomic services and a sustainable increase in income, while promoting improved natural resource management practices. Designed at a time when Mali had just begun to operationalize its decentralization policy, by putting national and local structures in place, the project represents the World Bank’s first large-scale investment in support of this aim. This assessment was based on a review of World Bank project documentation, supplemented by several sources of primary and secondary data collected during a field mission to Mali conducted between May 8 and May 30, 2017. Secondary data collected included the original Management Information System, 2009 census data, and fiscal transfers between the National Agency for Communal and Territorial Investments (ANICT) and all project (and nonproject communes). The data for the period 2001 to 2010 was obtained from Grinnell College, and for the period 2011, 2012–17, from ANICT (there were no transfers in 2012 because of the coup d’état that occurred that year). Primary data collection gathered the perceptions of the affected commune councils and mayors, service users and service providers, and the cooperatives that received grants for private productive assets. Specifically, the assessment conducted 12 commune council group interviews and 36 cooperative group interviews. In addition, the assessment collected data on distance and population to test the project’s service delivery metrics and targets. The project assessment will provide inputs into the Independent Evaluation Group’s (IEG’s) Fiscal Decentralization and Subnational Finance and Citizen Engagement Macroevaluations.

PPAR Improving Basic Health : The World Bank’s Experience in the Philippines

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses two World Bank health projects in the Philippines: the National Sector Support for Health Reform Project and the Second Women’s Health and Safe Motherhood Project. The National Sector Support Project was approved in June 2006 and closed in March 2012, nine months after the original date of June 2011. The Second Women’s Health Project was Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses two World Bank health projects in the Philippines: the National Sector Support for Health Reform Project and the Second Women’s Health and Safe Motherhood Project. The National Sector Support Project was approved in June 2006 and closed in March 2012, nine months after the original date of June 2011. The Second Women’s Health Project was approved in April 2005 and closed in June 2013, 12 months after the original date of June 2012. For both projects, the extensions were to permit the projects additional time to finish their activities. These projects were selected for a field-based assessment for several reasons. First, both projects represented major efforts to reform the health sector in the Philippines. Second, the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) had previously recommended both projects for further evaluation during the Implementation Completion and Results Report (ICR) review process to validate ratings. Third, the PPAR will contribute to IEG’s ongoing evaluation on the World Bank’s Support for Basic Health Services. The Philippines is classified as a lower middle-income country, with a gross national income of $3,550 per capita and an estimated population of 101.6 million in 2015. In recent years, economic growth has increased substantially between 2012 and 2016, the longest period of sustained economic growth in recent history. However, poverty and inequality remain high and persistent. At the time of both projects’ appraisal, the Philippines had seen low increases of health outcomes that were among the slowest in the region. The Philippines has a double burden of disease—both from traditional public health issues and emerging noncommunicable diseases. Health equity was a major challenge, in terms of access and health outcomes, and the high cost of healthcare contributed to impoverishment. The Philippines has long pursued health reform, built around improving equity with demand-based finance through a combination of public and private health services.

Peru: Rural Electrification Project (PPAR)

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Peru has been one of the Latin America and the Caribbean Region’s fastest-growing economies. It grew an average 6.2 percent between 2004 and 2013. Moderate poverty was more than halved from 58 percent to 22 percent of the population between 2004 and 2015. Extreme poverty, which is mainly rural, also fell from 16 percent to 4 percent during that period. Although urban inequality declined Show MorePeru has been one of the Latin America and the Caribbean Region’s fastest-growing economies. It grew an average 6.2 percent between 2004 and 2013. Moderate poverty was more than halved from 58 percent to 22 percent of the population between 2004 and 2015. Extreme poverty, which is mainly rural, also fell from 16 percent to 4 percent during that period. Although urban inequality declined substantially, rural inequality was reduced only modestly. To avoid a reversal of its achievements, the government needs to raise the quality of basic services, expand access to markets for the poor and vulnerable, and close infrastructure gaps to facilitate access to markets and services—all of which underscores the high priority of addressing rural electricity needs. The reform of Peru’s electricity sector in 1992 separated the generation, transmission, distribution, and regulatory functions. Based on an efficient enterprise model, the reforms introduced cost-recovery tariffs, and generation and transmission were privatized. A new regulatory body was created, and private companies are now in charge of electricity distribution in Lima and other urban centers. In rural areas, about 20 public electricity distribution companies (EDCs) provide electricity service. Most of the EDCs have performed well operationally and financially, with losses of less than 12 percent and payment rates above 95 percent. In 2005, when the first Rural Electrification Project (REP I) was appraised, Peru had a rural electrification rate of 30 percent—one of the lowest in the Region. According to the Ministry of Energy and Mines, more than 300,000 isolated households in rural areas could be reached only through renewable energy technologies, specifically individual solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Prior to REP I, service providers allocated negligible funding to meet this off-grid demand through renewable energy. The scarcity of rural electricity—coupled with the broader lack of access to infrastructure—have perpetuated the cycle of low quality of life, poor education and medical care, and limited opportunities for economic development in Peru’s rural areas. Ratings for this project were as follows: outcome was satisfactory, risk to development outcome was negligible, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from this project included: i) The promotion of productive uses of electricity needs consistent and adequate levels of technical assistance and investment support, without which their sustainability is put at risk. (ii) Achieving the financial sustainability of solar photovoltaic systems remains a challenge that the government and electricity distribution companies need to address. (iii) To reach “the last mile” of rural electrification while ensuring sustainability, the government and the EDCs need to take specific actions.

China Renewable Energy Scale-Up Program: Phase I (PPAR)

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The China Renewable Energy Scale-up Program (CRESP) was designed to enable a long-term policy dialogue and engagement with the government to develop renewables on a national scale. The backbone of the CRESP partnership was a three-phase program to develop a legal and policy framework and to support technology improvements, standards and Show MoreThe China Renewable Energy Scale-up Program (CRESP) was designed to enable a long-term policy dialogue and engagement with the government to develop renewables on a national scale. The backbone of the CRESP partnership was a three-phase program to develop a legal and policy framework and to support technology improvements, standards and certification, preparation, and implementation of innovative renewable energy projects across the country. Ratings for the project are as follows: Outcome was highly satisfactory, Risk to development was low, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. The main lessons that emerge from the experience of this complex project are: (i) Combining institutional development and investments in one package can help overcome difficult challenges. (ii) Adequate time and resources for preparation and consultations should be planned and allowed. (iii) Cost-shared grants can enhance selectivity and efficiently leverage knowledge transfer, technology improvement, and counterpart funding. (iv) A long-term, predictable price signal can provide an effective stimulus for continuing investments in renewable energies.

Colombia: Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the Colombia Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan with a catastrophe deferred drawdown option (CAT DDO). The loan of $150 million was approved on December 18, 2008, became effective on June 25, 2009, and closed on January 31, 2012. The PPAR reviews the performance of the operation based on Independent Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the Colombia Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan with a catastrophe deferred drawdown option (CAT DDO). The loan of $150 million was approved on December 18, 2008, became effective on June 25, 2009, and closed on January 31, 2012. The PPAR reviews the performance of the operation based on Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) and Operations Policy and Country Services guidelines on program evaluations. The loan sought to strengthen the government’s program for reducing risks resulting from adverse natural events. Ratings for the Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan project were as follows: outcome was satisfactory, risk to development outcome was negligible to low, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons include (i) The CAT DDO can help advance the DRM reform agenda and strengthen the clients’ system to respond to disaster risks. (ii) The CAT DDO can complement other World Bank instruments for supporting DRM reforms. (iii) The design and implementation of the CAT DDO in Colombia raised some issues that deserve further clarification.

Colombia: Business Productivity and Efficiency Development Policy Loans I-III (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the Colombia Business Productivity and Efficiency Loans, a programmatic series of development policy loans (DPLs) to Colombia implemented in FY06–11. The DPL series had two development objectives: (i) facilitating the operation of businesses and promoting investments to boost productivity and employment levels and (ii) Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the Colombia Business Productivity and Efficiency Loans, a programmatic series of development policy loans (DPLs) to Colombia implemented in FY06–11. The DPL series had two development objectives: (i) facilitating the operation of businesses and promoting investments to boost productivity and employment levels and (ii) consolidating the financial sector and capital markets as pillars of economic growth to address the needs of individuals and the productive sector. The objectives were highly relevant to country conditions both at the time of entry and closing, and well aligned to government and World Bank Group strategies. Ratings for Business Productivity and Efficiency Development Policy Loans I-III were as follows: outcome was moderately satisfactory, risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons include (i) The experience of this DPL program suggests that in-depth knowledge and government buy-in are essential in Colombia for designing reform programs with substance. (ii) Staggering interventions by policy areas presented trade-offs between the breadth and depth of the program.

Argentina: GEF Sustainable Transport and Air Quality Program (PPAR)

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The $3.99 million Argentina Global Environment Facility (GEF) Sustainable Transport and Air Quality Program (the GEF Project or the project) was approved on November 4, 2008. The project objectives were to assist beneficiary cities in: (i) reducing the rate of greenhouse gas emissions by increasing the use of less energy-intensive and cleaner modes of transport; and ii) inducing Show MoreThe $3.99 million Argentina Global Environment Facility (GEF) Sustainable Transport and Air Quality Program (the GEF Project or the project) was approved on November 4, 2008. The project objectives were to assist beneficiary cities in: (i) reducing the rate of greenhouse gas emissions by increasing the use of less energy-intensive and cleaner modes of transport; and ii) inducing policy changes in favor of sustainable transport policies. Ratings for GEF Sustainable Transport and Air Quality Program were as follows: outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, risk to development outcome was negligible to low, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrow performance was moderately unsatisfactory. Lessons include: (i) Broad and ambitious long-term objectives can result in implementation and efficacy challenges when the scope and timeframe of the project are limited. (ii) When selecting project implementation arrangements, whether centralized at the national level or decentralized, the World Bank should assess local capacity issues with care and realism. (iii) The rationale for linking the implementation of GEF projects with that of larger urban transport operations needs to be assessed on an individual project basis. (iv) While overall funding under GEF operations is often limited, GEF projects can promote innovative sustainable transport policy initiatives.

The Philippines: Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan with a Catastrophe Deferred Drawdown Option (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the Philippines Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan with a Catastrophe Deferred Drawdown Option (CAT DDO). The loan of US$500 million was approved in September 2011, fully drawn down in December 2011 when the disbursement trigger was met, and closed in October 2014. The PPAR reviews the performance of this Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the Philippines Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan with a Catastrophe Deferred Drawdown Option (CAT DDO). The loan of US$500 million was approved in September 2011, fully drawn down in December 2011 when the disbursement trigger was met, and closed in October 2014. The PPAR reviews the performance of this operation based on IEG and Operations Policy and Country Services (OPCS) guidelines on program evaluations. The Philippines CAT DDO aimed to enhance the capacity of the Government of the Philippines to manage the impacts of natural disasters. To this end, the program supported objectives in three policy areas: (i) strengthening the institutional capacity for disaster risk management (DRM) efforts; (ii) mainstreaming DRM into development planning; and (iii) better managing the government's fiscal exposure to natural hazard impacts. The operation was complemented by a technical assistance program from the World Bank Global Fund for Disaster Risk Reduction (GFDRR) to provide targeted support in these areas. Ratings for the Disaster Risk Management and Development Policy Loan project were as follows: outcome was satisfactory, risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons gleamed from the review are: (i) The CAT DDO proved to be a useful instrument in the Philippines for achieving the dual objectives of supporting fundamental DRM reforms and providing quick-release financing for disaster recovery and reconstruction. (ii) As with all policy reforms, in-depth analytical work and well-targeted technical assistance were critical for achieving results. (iii) In the context of this operation, there were multiple confusions over the purposes of a CAT DDO and the use of the loan proceeds, which call for further clarification in World Bank documents and better communication.

Nepal: Poverty Alleviation Fund Project

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Ratings for the Poverty Alleviation Fund I were as follows: outcome was satisfactory, risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons The community-driven development (CDD) approach can provide a powerful organizing framework the welfare of communities. (ii) The sustainability of CDD programs Show MoreRatings for the Poverty Alleviation Fund I were as follows: outcome was satisfactory, risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons The community-driven development (CDD) approach can provide a powerful organizing framework the welfare of communities. (ii) The sustainability of CDD programs hinges on finding a wise balance between program agility – achieved through independence of the implementing agency – and government ownership and coordination with line ministries. (iii) A sound assessment of community needs is essential for CDD programs. (iv) Explicitly acknowledging and addressing diversity within communities can help achieve substantial results for marginalized groups. (v) Income-generating subprojects require complementary activities, such as specific training and help in accessing markets, which need to be embedded in project design to ensure success. (vi) A carefully planned and implemented pilot phase for a project provides essential learning for a successful scaling up. (vii) Robust data collection and effective analysis of available data are crucial to modifying the project design and to identifying progress and results.

Cambodia: Demand for Good Governance Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the Demand for Good Governance (DFGG) Project, which was approved by the Board on December 2, 2008, became effective on June 24, 2009, and closed on September 30, 2014, for a total project cost of $21.42 million. The project development objective (PDO) was to enhance DFGG in priority reform areas by strengthening institutions, supporting Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the Demand for Good Governance (DFGG) Project, which was approved by the Board on December 2, 2008, became effective on June 24, 2009, and closed on September 30, 2014, for a total project cost of $21.42 million. The project development objective (PDO) was to enhance DFGG in priority reform areas by strengthening institutions, supporting partnerships, and sharing lessons. Enhancing the DFGG Project was further unpacked in the project results framework into four specific objectives: (i) promote, (ii) mediate, (iii) respond to, or (iv) monitor to inform DFGG. Ratings for Demand for Good Governance Project were as follows: outcome was moderately satisfactory, risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. The review finds three key lessons: (i) Timely identification of key changes in policy during project implementation can substantially impact project results. (ii) The additional resources and time needed for the direct support to non-state actors to be effective should not be underestimated. (iii) Projects aiming at strengthening accountability should pay more attention to the political economy.