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Report/Evaluation Type:Project Level Evaluations (PPARs)
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Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Sao Tome, Principe: Internet and Mobile Connectivity (Central African Backbone Program APL 1A and APL 2) (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Central Africa Backbone Project Adaptable Program Loan (APL) 1A implemented in three countries: Cameroon, Central African Republic and Chad; and the Central Africa Backbone Project APL 2 implemented in Sao Tome and Principe. The objectives of the projects were to help Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Central Africa Backbone Project Adaptable Program Loan (APL) 1A implemented in three countries: Cameroon, Central African Republic and Chad; and the Central Africa Backbone Project APL 2 implemented in Sao Tome and Principe. The objectives of the projects were to help to increase the geographical reach and usage of regional broadband network services and reduce their prices to end-users. Ratings for these projects are as follows: Outcome is unsatisfactory, Risk to development outcome is substantial, Bank and Borrow performance are both moderately unsatisfactory. For APL 2, the ratings are: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome is substantial, Bank performance is satisfactory, and Borrow performance is moderately satisfactory. Lessons from the projects include: (i) A thorough political economy assessment and high-level national and regional commitment are key ingredients for complex regional ICT projects. (ii) The experience from the Central Africa Backbone APL 1 and 2 project shows that public private partnership arrangements are difficult to implement in multiple countries, particularly when countries have asymmetrical needs and incentives with respect to increasing competition for the provision of international and national capacity. (iii) Technical assistance for the preparation of legislation and sector strategies is only the first step to creating an enabling environment for the ICT sector. (iv) Assessing and funding the capacity needs of Regional Economic Communities is important for project coordination and implementation, so that they can carry out their functions effectively. (v) In weak capacity environments, it is beneficial that the projects build the needed institutional capacity for the Borrower to further / implement the crucial reforms and to ensure sustainability of the investments in the country.

Philippines: Social Welfare and Development Reform Project (PPAR)

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This is the Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) of the World Bank Group on the Social Welfare and Development Reform Project (including additional financing) in the Philippines. The project had two objectives: (i) strengthen the effectiveness of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) to efficiently implement the Show MoreThis is the Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) of the World Bank Group on the Social Welfare and Development Reform Project (including additional financing) in the Philippines. The project had two objectives: (i) strengthen the effectiveness of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) to efficiently implement the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (the CCT program, known as Pantawid); and (ii) strengthen the effectiveness of the DSWD to expand an efficient and functional National Household Targeting System of social protection programs. Results for this Social Welfare and Development Reform Project are as follows: Outcome was highly satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was substantial, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) The success of a large, nationwide social protection program like Pantawid lies in creating and strengthening the operational and institutional systems needed to support it. (ii) Strong government ownership is critical to establishing and sustaining ambitious programs like Pantawid. (iii) The World Bank’s ability to bring global knowledge to bear and skillfully deploy a full technical engagement was key to success. (iv) Continuous monitoring and evaluation are essential to maintaining CCT programs like Pantawid and ensuring their constant evolution. (v) The quality of education and health, not just service utilization, is critical to achieve the expected gains in human capital. (vi) As for all CCTs, a graduation strategy is essential to ensure that the program delivers on longer-term benefits and acts as a stepping stone into more stable livelihoods.

Albania: Secondary and Local Roads Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Secondary and Local Roads Project in Albania approved in 2008. The project development objective was to improve access to essential services and economic markets via the provision of all-weather roads for the resident population in the rural areas of Albania. This would be achieved through Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Secondary and Local Roads Project in Albania approved in 2008. The project development objective was to improve access to essential services and economic markets via the provision of all-weather roads for the resident population in the rural areas of Albania. This would be achieved through reconstructing selected secondary and local roads; building the competencies of the implementation agency Albanian Development Fund (ADF); building an asset management system for the secondary and local road networks; and improving capacity in the local community for maintenance. Ratings for the Secondary and Local Roads Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome as moderate, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) Implementing a successful multidonor programmatic approach to sector development requires the combination of government commitment with credible planning and common rules of engagement. (ii) Concentrating competencies within one agency may frustrate future decentralization of responsibilities. (iii) In the absence of need-based and credible linkages to resource allocation, a road asset management system may not get sufficient traction.

Ethiopia: Nutrition Project (PPAR)

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Although Ethiopia has achieved substantial progress in economic, social, and human development over the past decade, the ranking of its Human Development Index remains low. Malnutrition is widespread, and it lowers resistance to infections and affects the intellectual development of children and productivity among adults. The project development objectives were “to improve child and maternal care Show MoreAlthough Ethiopia has achieved substantial progress in economic, social, and human development over the past decade, the ranking of its Human Development Index remains low. Malnutrition is widespread, and it lowers resistance to infections and affects the intellectual development of children and productivity among adults. The project development objectives were “to improve child and maternal care behavior, and increase utilization of key micronutrients, in order to contribute to improving the nutritional status of vulnerable groups.” Direct beneficiaries consisted of pregnant and lactating women, and under-five children in food insecure regions with high malnutrition rates. Ratings for the Nutrition Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was moderate, M&E Quality was substantial, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) The use of interactive approaches at the community level can facilitate behavior change. (ii) In very poor communities, CBN needs to complement behavior change interventions with income support to achieve the desired goals fully because behavior change also depends on the means to keep or to buy healthful and nutritionally rich food. (iii) Favorable institutional conditions, programmatic arrangements, and incentives facilitate the unfolding of multisectoral engagement. (iv) Integration of nutrition operations with an existing and institutionalized service delivery mechanism at the community level facilitates CBN implementation. (v) External collaboration with development partners, under government leadership, catalyzes international expertise and good practices that benefit and reinforce government policy and its nutrition agenda.

Armenia: Achievements and Challenges in Improving Health Care Utilization – A Multiproject Evaluation of the World Bank Support to the Health System Modernization (2004-2016) (PPAR)

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This is the multiproject Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) for the Adaptable Program Loan (APL) Health System Modernization series (comprising a first phase P073974, a second phase P104467, and an additional financing P121728). It evaluates the extent to which the APL series achieved its intended outcomes and offers an opportunity to draw lessons from Show MoreThis is the multiproject Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) for the Adaptable Program Loan (APL) Health System Modernization series (comprising a first phase P073974, a second phase P104467, and an additional financing P121728). It evaluates the extent to which the APL series achieved its intended outcomes and offers an opportunity to draw lessons from the long-term engagement of the World Bank in reform of the Armenia health sector aiming to inform and guide future investments in the health sector. The APL series was selected for an indepth field-based assessment due to its potential for learning from long-term engagement of the World Bank in health sector reforms; its clustering nature that allows coverage of multiple lending operation in the same country; and the relatively low coverage of previous IEG project evaluations in the country. Ratings for the Health System Modernization Project I are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was negligible to low, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Project II ratings are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from both projects include: (i) An approach that exploits synergies and lessons from other World Bank engagements in the health sector is important for undertaking complex reforms and helping the government stay the course of the reform. (ii) Macro and micro health policies need to be combined in a manner that the unintended consequences of policy changes are not overlooked. (iii) A shortened period between the approval dates of successive phases of an APL can limit the opportunity to incorporate lessons from previous phases into the design of new ones. (iv) In country contexts with strong social and cultural factors affecting uptake of health care services, supply-side and systemwide policy reforms need to be combined with demand-side interventions addressing the health-seeking behavior of patients. (v) While investments in infrastructure are not enough for health system modernization, they can help ensure acceptance of the proposed organizational changes involving strong stakeholders in the hospital sector.

Peru: Juntos Results for Nutrition Project (PPAR)

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This is the Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) for the Juntos Results for Nutrition Project in Peru. The project objectives were to (i) increase demand for nutrition services by strengthening the operational effectiveness of Juntos and (ii) improve coverage and quality of the supply of basic preventive health and nutrition services in the communities covered under the program Show MoreThis is the Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) for the Juntos Results for Nutrition Project in Peru. The project objectives were to (i) increase demand for nutrition services by strengthening the operational effectiveness of Juntos and (ii) improve coverage and quality of the supply of basic preventive health and nutrition services in the communities covered under the program, including Juntos. The project targeted 3 of the 14 poorest regions of Peru: Amazonas, Cajamarca, and Huánuco. Ratings for the Juntos Results for Nutrition Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and M&E quality was substantial. Lessons from the project include: (i) Long-term engagement is critical to a deep understanding of complex malnutrition challenges. (ii) Attitudes toward nutrition need to change at all levels to make a difference. (iii) It is important to address both the supply and demand for health and nutrition services. (iv) Understanding the causes, consequences, and corrective actions required to reduce malnutrition can lead to changes in behaviors. (v) Changes in beneficiaries’ behaviors cannot be assumed; they must be monitored.

Vietnam: Education Projects - School Readiness and Escuela Nueva

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The government and people of Vietnam place a high value on education. The government’s Socio-Economic Development Strategy 2010–20 and the Socio-Economic Development Plan 2016–20 emphasize the importance of investment in human capital to develop people’s skills in support of a knowledge-based economy. This assessment covers two projects: Vietnam School Readiness and Promotion Project, and the Show MoreThe government and people of Vietnam place a high value on education. The government’s Socio-Economic Development Strategy 2010–20 and the Socio-Economic Development Plan 2016–20 emphasize the importance of investment in human capital to develop people’s skills in support of a knowledge-based economy. This assessment covers two projects: Vietnam School Readiness and Promotion Project, and the Global Partnership for Education-Vietnam Escuela Nueva Project. Objectives for these projects are: (i) to raise school readiness for five-year old children, in particular for those most vulnerable to not succeeding in a school environment, through supporting selected elements of Vietnam’s Early Childhood Education (ECE) program, and (ii) to introduce and use new teaching and learning practices in the classroom targeting the most disadvantaged groups of primary students. Ratings for the Vietnam School Readiness and Promotion Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Bank performance was satisfactory, Quality of M&E was substantial, and Risk to development outcome was low. Ratings for the Global Partnership for Education – Vietnam Escuela Nueva Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was modest, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. IEG identified the following lessons from its evaluation of the two operations: (i) In addition to lending, the World Bank can add value through the transmission of knowledge from experiences and lessons that help shape reforms. (ii) When significant pedagogical changes are required of teachers, incentives, support, and long-term commitment are needed (probably more than education systems realize). (iii) When scaling up or adopting a systemwide approach, it is important to understand and design this approach in accordance with the decentralized context and challenges faced at the various levels of administration. (iv) Targeting disadvantaged areas does not translate into targeted efforts for specific vulnerable groups. (v) When scaling up, the importance of consultation and communication cannot be underestimated.

Ethiopia: Urban Local Government Development Project (PPAR)

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This is the Project Performance Assessment Report for the Urban Local Government Development Project (ULGDP) in Ethiopia, which was approved by the World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors on May 29, 2008, and closed on December 31, 2014. The project’s development objective was to support improved performance in the planning, delivery, and sustained provision of priority municipal services and Show MoreThis is the Project Performance Assessment Report for the Urban Local Government Development Project (ULGDP) in Ethiopia, which was approved by the World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors on May 29, 2008, and closed on December 31, 2014. The project’s development objective was to support improved performance in the planning, delivery, and sustained provision of priority municipal services and infrastructure by urban local governments across the country. Ratings for Urban Local Government Development Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was negligible to low, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) There is a trade‐off between scope and development outcomes in municipal operations that use performance‐based grants. It is critical to ensure that funding is sufficient to both incentivize behavior at the city level and offer a meaningful level of technical assistance. (ii) A one‐size‐fits‐all approach is ineffective in urban development projects that target multiple cities at various stages of development. (iii) Performance‐based grants should be considered as a preferred method of intermediating intergovernmental fiscal resources to urban local governments in the context of emerging urban systems. (iv) Promoting autonomous decision making at the city level although ensuring that operational rules and supervision are in place is a necessary condition to ensuring the intended use of funds in municipal finance projects. (v) Urban development projects need to balance targeting core city administrative functions as well as improving city management and planning competencies.

Poland: Public Finance, Resilience and Growth Development Policy Loans (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates four lending operations implemented in Poland from 2012 to 2016. The development objectives of the first series were to support Poland’s fiscal consolidation agenda while strengthening fiscal institutions and improving the efficiency and sustainability of social spending. The objectives of the second series were to Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates four lending operations implemented in Poland from 2012 to 2016. The development objectives of the first series were to support Poland’s fiscal consolidation agenda while strengthening fiscal institutions and improving the efficiency and sustainability of social spending. The objectives of the second series were to enhance macroeconomic resilience, strengthen labor market flexibility and employment promotion, and improve private sector competitiveness and innovation. Ratings for the First and Second Public Finance Development Policy Loans are as follows: Outcome is satisfactory, Risk to development outcome is low, Bank performance is satisfactory, Borrower performance is moderately satisfactory. Ratings for the First and Second Resilience and Growth Development Policy Loans are as follows: Outcome is moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome is moderate, Bank performance is satisfactory, and Borrower performance is satisfactory. Lessons include: (i) Development policy lending can help mitigate global economic and financial shocks and protect vulnerable groups in high-income countries when accompanied with timely, high-quality, and responsive technical assistance that supports the reforms. (ii) Where a high-income country is required to implement constitutional provisions or agreed reforms with a regional body, providing support for the implementation of such reforms is likely to enhance the likelihood of success. (iii) RAS are a promising tool for engaging governments in high-income countries when Bank Group staff demonstrate the capacity to produce timely and high-quality analytical products in response to government requests. (iv) Coordinating with other partners in situations where the World Bank is not the largest stakeholder is important for successful implementation of reforms. (v) Analyzing the political cost of implementing proposed reform measures is an important part of policy lending.

El Salvador: Income Support and Employability Project (PPAR)

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This is a Project Performance Assessment Report of the Income Support and Employability Project (P117440) in El Salvador. The project development objective was to (i) provide temporary income support to the urban vulnerable poor, (ii) improve the coverage of labor intermediation and training services to the urban vulnerable poor, and (iii) improve the institutional capacity of the borrower to Show MoreThis is a Project Performance Assessment Report of the Income Support and Employability Project (P117440) in El Salvador. The project development objective was to (i) provide temporary income support to the urban vulnerable poor, (ii) improve the coverage of labor intermediation and training services to the urban vulnerable poor, and (iii) improve the institutional capacity of the borrower to develop an integrated social protection system. The project was approved in November 2009 (fiscal year [FY]10) with an original closing date envisioned for December 2014 (FY15). The project underwent five restructurings throughout implementation. The final closing date was August 2016 (FY17). At appraisal, project cost was estimated at $50 million and government counterpart funding was $4 million. By project closing, $49.3 million of the loan proceeds were disbursed. Ratings for the Income Support and Employability Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was substantial, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Lessons from this project include: (i) A crisis period can create opportunities for broader reform of an existing social protection system through projects that adequately balance short and long-term objectives. (ii) Ensuring high participation and higher incomes for vulnerable groups requires interventions that are specifically tailored to address the needs of these groups. (iii) In an emergency context, a project can be implemented rapidly and effectively by using the country’s existing capacity when the project relies on an implementing agency with a proven track record and is accompanied by close World Bank supervision. (iv) The support of knowledgeable local actors is critical for the successful implementation of an intervention in areas affected by high levels of crime and violence.