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Burkina Faso CLR Review FY13-16

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Burkina Faso is a low-income country with a GNI per capita of $620 in 2016. During 2013-2016, annual GDP growth averaged 5.0 percent, but annual GDP per capita growth was only 1.9 percent due to high population growth. Economic growth was built on a narrow base, mainly agriculture and mining, and has failed to produce a sufficient number of jobs to absorb the rapidly growing work force, 80 Show MoreBurkina Faso is a low-income country with a GNI per capita of $620 in 2016. During 2013-2016, annual GDP growth averaged 5.0 percent, but annual GDP per capita growth was only 1.9 percent due to high population growth. Economic growth was built on a narrow base, mainly agriculture and mining, and has failed to produce a sufficient number of jobs to absorb the rapidly growing work force, 80 percent of which are in agriculture. While the poverty rate declined from 50 percent to 40 percent between 2003 and 2014, the absolute number of people living in poverty, of which 90 percent live in rural areas, remained roughly the same between the two periods – lack of access by the poor to social services and basic infrastructure has been a major constraint. The level of vulnerability of households is high, with two-thirds suffering from shocks each year, mainly from natural hazards. Burkina Faso ranked 185 out of 188 countries in 2015 in the Human Development Index.

Role in Global Issues: An Independent Evaluation of the World Bank Group Convening Power (Approach Paper)

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Recent World Bank Group (WBG) strategy documents, including the Forward Look, reiterated the importance of the WBG’s leadership role in dealing with global challenges and positioned the organization’s ability to work at the nexus of local and global issues such as climate change, gender, and pandemics as core part of its value proposition (World Bank 2013 and 2016). When the WBG shareholders Show MoreRecent World Bank Group (WBG) strategy documents, including the Forward Look, reiterated the importance of the WBG’s leadership role in dealing with global challenges and positioned the organization’s ability to work at the nexus of local and global issues such as climate change, gender, and pandemics as core part of its value proposition (World Bank 2013 and 2016). When the WBG shareholders committed to scale up WBG resources through the recent IBRD and IFC capital increase and the IDA18 replenishment in 2016, a core premise was to more strategically perform its global role, in better collaboration with public and private partners. This evaluation is about the WBG’s global role. It will assess how and when the WBG exercises convening power to spark collective action on global issues. Given the scale and interconnectedness of global challenges; increased complexity of the development ecosystem; and concerns over “mission creep”, the WBG’s role as a catalyst for collective action on behalf of the international community could become even more important. When and how should it lead, when should it support, and when should it withdraw?

Benin CLR Review FY13-18

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This review of the World Bank Group’s Completion and Learning Report (CLR) covers the period of the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) (FY13-17) and the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) which extended the CPS period to include FY18. The PLR was discussed at the Board on August 30, 2016. Benin is a low-income country (per capita income of $820 in 2016). It has a population of about ten Show MoreThis review of the World Bank Group’s Completion and Learning Report (CLR) covers the period of the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) (FY13-17) and the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) which extended the CPS period to include FY18. The PLR was discussed at the Board on August 30, 2016. Benin is a low-income country (per capita income of $820 in 2016). It has a population of about ten million (2013 census) with a high population growth of around 2.8 percent per annum. The average GDP growth during the review period was 4.9 percent (2013-2016). The average per capita GDP growth rate was relatively low at 2.0 percent between 2013 and 2016, due to the high population growth and drop in the overall growth rate in 2015 as a result of an economic slowdown in neighboring Nigeria, political transition in 2015-2106, and decline in cotton prices. The economy is dominated by traditional agriculture, informal commerce and trade - areas with low levels of productivity. The country ranks 167 (out of 188) on the UNDP Human Development Index in 2015.

Bolivia: Reducing Maternal and Infant Mortality: A multi-project evaluation of 16 years of World Bank support to the health sector (PPAR)

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Bolivia’s poor maternal and child health outcomes were of great concern in the 1990s. Infant and child mortality rates were 67 and 92 per 1,000 live births in 1998, and maternal mortality was 390 per 100,000 live births, risking Bolivia’s achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The capacities of the Bolivian health system were insufficient to respond to the need for health care Show MoreBolivia’s poor maternal and child health outcomes were of great concern in the 1990s. Infant and child mortality rates were 67 and 92 per 1,000 live births in 1998, and maternal mortality was 390 per 100,000 live births, risking Bolivia’s achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The capacities of the Bolivian health system were insufficient to respond to the need for health care access, availability, affordability, quality, and equity. Health facilities lacked essential drugs and equipment needed to provide good care. In addition to scarce and inefficiently distributed health workers, heath staff were often poorly trained, compromising the quality of treatment. The Expanded Immunization program had too little funding, poor communication strategies, and unreliable data, which led to declining immunization rates starting in 1996. Cultural and economic barriers limited demand for both preventive and curative care. The World Bank supported the government’s health sector reforms through a series of Adaptable Program Loans (APLs) over 16 years, including the 1999 Health Sector Reform Project, 2001 Second Phase of the Health Sector Reform Program, and 2008 Expanding Access to Reduce Health Inequities. The reforms supported by these projects are the subject of this Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR). This report spans three projects. Ratings for the first project, Health Sector Reform (APL 1) is as follows: Outcome is satisfactory, risk to development outcome is moderate, Bank and Borrower performance is both moderately satisfactory. Ratings for the second project, Sector Phase of the Health Sector Reform Program (APL II) is as follows: Outcome is moderately satisfactory, risk to development outcome is moderate, Bank and Borrower performance is both moderately satisfactory. Ratings for the third project, Expanding Access to Reduce Health Inequities (APL III) is as follows: Outcome is moderately satisfactory, risk to development outcome is moderate, Bank and Borrower performance is both moderately satisfactory. Lessons from these projects include: (i) The definition of a common results framework is useful to align the efforts of different government levels. (ii) A robust results-based approach needs to define a clear mechanism of rewards/sanctions to function well. Otherwise it risks turning into a mere monitoring tool that could lead to perverse incentives. (iii) Project design coordinating efforts with parallel programs that have similar goals has a great potential for efficiency, but it raises methodological concerns about the attribution of outcomes. (iv) While continued focus on quality objectives is certainly commendable, it needs to be accompanied by more robust outcome measures to prove quality enhancements. (v) Programmatic approaches are suitable where sector knowledge is strong, program objectives are long-term and clear, and country ownership is established. (vi) Ambitious projects partially relying on a government promise to pass a reform law are likely to need a restructuring. Reallocation of project funds in response to ad hoc government requests may lessen the logic of the results chain and risk the M&E framework from providing sufficient evidence of project achievements.

Mexico: Support to the Social Protection System in Health Project (PPAR)

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This is the Project Performance Assessment Report for the Mexico Social Protection in Health Project (P116226). The project, approved by the World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors on March 25, 2010, provided an International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) loan of $1,250 million (IBRD-78600), which represents the second largest World Bank operation by commitments of the entire Show MoreThis is the Project Performance Assessment Report for the Mexico Social Protection in Health Project (P116226). The project, approved by the World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors on March 25, 2010, provided an International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) loan of $1,250 million (IBRD-78600), which represents the second largest World Bank operation by commitments of the entire World Bank human development cluster. The Government of Mexico provided counterpart financing of $26 billion equivalent. The loan became effective on December 29, 2010, and closed after three years on December 31, 2013. This report serves an accountability purpose by evaluating the extent to which the operation achieved its intended outcomes, but also a learning purpose. The Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) Review identified the project for evaluation to verify the project’s ratings following IEG’s revision of the outcome rating from satisfactory in the Implementation Completion and Results Report (ICR) to moderately satisfactory in the ICR Review. In addition, this report aims to identify lessons for similar health insurance schemes and relevant World Bank–supported operations. Ratings for the Support to the Social Protection System in Health Project is as follows: Outcome is moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome is moderate, World Bank performance is moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance is satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) In times of economic crisis, if the country has a well-designed health program in place, the World Bank’s financial support can be effective in helping the government to sustain and expand access to health services, protecting the poor from the adverse impact of the crisis. (ii) Investment Project Financing can be an efficient alternative to development policy financing if there is government ownership of the national program and a strong monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system to monitor results. (iii) It may not be possible to achieve universal health coverage in fragmented health systems without an individual mandate for health insurance coverage. (iv) In decentralized health systems, to achieve the desired changes at the local level the use of incentives (compatibility) should be preferred to the use of regulations and aligned with the institutional capabilities of the agents.

China: Hubei Hydropower Development in Poor Areas Project (PPAR)

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This is the Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) of the World Bank Group on the China: Hubei Hydropower Development in Poor Areas Project (IBRD-46660). The project had three project development objectives: (a) to facilitate economic growth in Hubei by expanding electric power generation capacity in an economically and environmentally sustainable Show MoreThis is the Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) of the World Bank Group on the China: Hubei Hydropower Development in Poor Areas Project (IBRD-46660). The project had three project development objectives: (a) to facilitate economic growth in Hubei by expanding electric power generation capacity in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner; (b) to enhance the efficiency of the electricity sector in Hubei by commercializing county-level generation companies; and (c) to contribute to poverty alleviation efforts in poor communities in Hubei. Ratings for Hubei Hydropower Development in Poor Areas Project are as follows: Outcome is satisfactory, Risk to development outcome is moderate, Bank performance is moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance is moderately satisfactory. The main lessons that emerge from the experience of this complex project are the following: (i) Integrating hydropower investments with institutional development and poverty alleviation can yield strong synergies. (ii) The rigorous quality and depth of appraisal for implementing agencies needs to be maintained throughout the project cycle, including project components added late.

Central African Republic: Emergency Food Crisis Response and Agriculture Re-Launch Project (PPAR)

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This is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) on the World Bank Emergency Food Crises and Agriculture Re-launch project designed to provide emergency assistance to vulnerable populations in the Central African Republic following a coup d’état in 2013. Because of the extent of the crisis, and the loss of government capacity in the wake of the crisis to implement emergency aid, the project Show MoreThis is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) on the World Bank Emergency Food Crises and Agriculture Re-launch project designed to provide emergency assistance to vulnerable populations in the Central African Republic following a coup d’état in 2013. Because of the extent of the crisis, and the loss of government capacity in the wake of the crisis to implement emergency aid, the project was executed by the World Food Program (WFP) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), contracted by the Ministry of Rural Development. Ratings for the Emergency Food Crisis Response and Agriculture Re-Launch Project are as follows: Outcome is unsatisfactory, Risk to development outcome is high, Bank performance is unsatisfactory, and Borrower performance is unsatisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) Standard Agreements between World Bank clients and UN executing agencies can facilitate success if they include a common vision about intended objectives, a clear and achievable results framework and related outcome indicators, and a clear articulation of how risks to the environment and social framework will be monitored, reported on, and managed. (ii) Efficient seed procurement for conflict-affected countries is complex owing to disruption of trading networks and normal supply and demand signals: the recruitment and funding of a technical team needs to be a prior condition of project effectiveness. (iii) Emergency food security operations do not necessarily require food agency coupling (such as WFP and FAO). (iv) Post-conflict emergency assistance in highly agrarian economies should try to maximize synergies across sectoral operations to optimize the delivery of food aid while laying a foundation for growth of the agricultural sector.

Mongolia - Mongolia Multi-Sector TA

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Lao People’s Democratic Republic: Trade Development Facility Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) Trade Development Facility project that was financed from a multi-donor trust fund. The project’s objectives were as follows: (i) To support the Recipient’s aims in poverty reduction and economic development of Lao PDR, by facilitating trade and cross-border movement of goods, and by Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) Trade Development Facility project that was financed from a multi-donor trust fund. The project’s objectives were as follows: (i) To support the Recipient’s aims in poverty reduction and economic development of Lao PDR, by facilitating trade and cross-border movement of goods, and by increasing capacity of the Government to undertake specific tasks related to regional and global economic integration; and (ii) To assist the Recipient in implementing the Action Matrix for Trade-Related Assistance approved by the Recipient and donors in September 2006, and achieve the goals set up in the Recipient’s medium-term strategy for increasing growth and export competitiveness, as reflected in the Recipient’s Poverty Reduction Strategy and the National Socio-Economic Development Plan. Ratings for the Trade Development Facility Project is as follows: Outcome is satisfactory, Risk to development outcome is moderate, World Bank performance is satisfactory, and Borrower performance is satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) Early engagement with the government: Appropriate analytic work can lay the basis for sound project design and enhance the commitment of the government. (ii) Attribution issues: The final outcomes in a results framework should be specific and attributable to the project. (iii) Simple project design: In the context of low institutional capacity, simple project design with fewer components may enhance the focus of a project and the likelihood of full implementation. (iv) Capacity building: In a limited capacity environment, a “learning-by-doing” approach can be effective in building government capacity. (v) Political commitment: Accession to a major regional or global agreement such as WTO can serve as a strong incentive for reforms and ensure political commitment.

Mongolia: Renewable Energy for Rural Access Project (REAP) (PPAR)

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The purpose of this Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) is to evaluate the development outcomes of the Renewable Energy and Rural Electricity Access Project (REAP) in Mongolia. The project’s development objectives (PDOs) were to expand access to electricity and improve reliability of electricity services in selected off-grid soum centers and among the herder population, and to remove Show MoreThe purpose of this Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) is to evaluate the development outcomes of the Renewable Energy and Rural Electricity Access Project (REAP) in Mongolia. The project’s development objectives (PDOs) were to expand access to electricity and improve reliability of electricity services in selected off-grid soum centers and among the herder population, and to remove barriers to the scale-up of renewable energy use. Ratings for the Renewable Energy for Rural Access Project are as follows: Outcome is moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome is significant, Bank performance is moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance is moderately satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) An appropriate balance between affordability and cost recovery is essential for scaling up the adoption of portable renewable energy systems by those who cannot afford the full investment costs. (ii) Proper market assessments are an essential requirement for projects that rely on the private sector for distribution of equipment, after-sales service, or the operation of local off-grid utilities. (iii) To be sustainable and to realize the potential for expansion in demand, renewable energy technologies (RETs) require established and regulated equipment quality standards to guide purchases, and proper handling and disposal of used SHS batteries. (iv) Regular dialogue and consultation at the appropriate client government level regarding government policy intentions and their consequences are critical to inform project design and implementation.