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Report/Evaluation Type:Project Level Evaluations (PPARs)
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Niger: Community Action Program and Community-Based Integrated Ecosystem Management Project Phase I and II (PPAR)

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The World Bank has played a key role in helping Niger to further its rural decentralization aims. The World Bank has supported the implementation of the rural code throughout its history. It approved the Natural Resource Management Project (1995–2003) to help Niger jump-start the code implementation and followed it with the Community Action Program (2004–20), a three-phase adjustable program loan Show MoreThe World Bank has played a key role in helping Niger to further its rural decentralization aims. The World Bank has supported the implementation of the rural code throughout its history. It approved the Natural Resource Management Project (1995–2003) to help Niger jump-start the code implementation and followed it with the Community Action Program (2004–20), a three-phase adjustable program loan designed to empower local governments and communities to progressively achieve their collective local development aims in a participatory and sustainable way. This Project Performance Assessment Report assesses the first and second phases of the Community Action Program (CAP-1 and CAP-2). Ratings for the First Phase of the Community Action Program are as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Overall efficacy was substantial, Bank performance was satisfactory, Borrower performance was satisfactory, and Quality of monitoring and evaluation was modest. Ratings for the Second Phase of the Community Action Program are as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Overall efficacy was substantial, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, Borrower performance was satisfactory, and Quality of monitoring and evaluation was substantial. Lessons from both projects include: (i) Land and resource restoration projects should support—and make evident how they are supporting—existing customary flexible tenure arrangements to ensure distributional benefits among resource users and to mitigate conflict risks. (ii) The success of natural resource restoration depends on the extent to which private or communal resource users are compensated over reasonable, short-term time frames for abstaining from using those resources until the long-term public benefits of resource restoration are achieved. (iii) Projects that support land and resource restoration can ensure that women benefit by addressing participation barriers linked to social and cultural norms. (iv) Socioeconomic and anthropological analyses, conducted before project elaboration, can support the gender aspects of production and marketing better.

Liberia: Integrated Public Financial Management Reform Project (PPAR)

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The project development objective of the Liberia Integrated Public Financial Management Reform Project (IPFMRP) was to improve the budget coverage, fiscal policy management, financial control, and oversight of government finances of the recipient. The project was restructured in 2016, but the project development objective remained unchanged. Four subobjectives are assessed for this review: (i) Show MoreThe project development objective of the Liberia Integrated Public Financial Management Reform Project (IPFMRP) was to improve the budget coverage, fiscal policy management, financial control, and oversight of government finances of the recipient. The project was restructured in 2016, but the project development objective remained unchanged. Four subobjectives are assessed for this review: (i) improve budget coverage, (ii) improve fiscal policy management, (iii) improve financial control, and (iv) improve oversight of government finances. Ratings for the Integrated Public Financial Management Reform Project are as follows: Outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, Overall efficacy is modest, Risk to development outcome was substantial, Bank performance is moderately unsatisfactory, and Quality of monitoring and evaluation is negligible. Lessons from this project include: (i) Effective support for enhancing revenue mobilization and administration can benefit from combining technical assistance with logistical support. (ii) The use of PEFA composite indicators as results indicators is often not advisable. (iii) Superficial reviews and overoptimistic ratings in ISRs can negatively affect project implementation and outcomes. (iv) Effective and sustainable PFM reforms require continuous engagement to overcome political challenges.

Brazil: National Biodiversity Mainstreaming and Institutional Consolidation Project and Sustainable Cerrado Initiative (PPAR)

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Brazil is the most biodiverse country in the world, holding an estimated one-fifth of all known flora and fauna species. It also contains a wide range of climate types in seven major biomes, including the vast Amazon and now largely depleted Atlantic rainforests, the Cerrado savanna (which covering 2 million square kilometers is second in size only to Amazônia), the semiarid Caatinga, the world’s Show MoreBrazil is the most biodiverse country in the world, holding an estimated one-fifth of all known flora and fauna species. It also contains a wide range of climate types in seven major biomes, including the vast Amazon and now largely depleted Atlantic rainforests, the Cerrado savanna (which covering 2 million square kilometers is second in size only to Amazônia), the semiarid Caatinga, the world’s largest Pantanal wetlands, and an extensive coastline. The National Biodiversity Mainstreaming and Institutional Consolidation Project (PROBIO 2) was funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Its project development objectives were (i) to promote mainstreaming of biodiversity at the national level in key public and private sector planning strategies and practices, and (ii) to consolidate and strengthen institutional capacity to produce and disseminate relevant biodiversity information. The project development objectives of the Sustainable Cerrado Initiative (GEF Cerrado) were to enhance biodiversity conservation in, and improve environmental and natural resource management of, the Cerrado in Brazil’s territory through appropriate policies and practices. Ratings from the National Biodiversity Mainstreaming and Institutional Consolidation Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Overall efficacy was satisfactory, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Quality of monitoring and evaluation was modest. Ratings for the Sustainable Cerrado Initiative are as follows: Outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, Overall efficacy was modest, Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and Quality of monitoring and evaluation was modest. Lessons from the project include: (i) A critical element for the success of projects that seek to promote the mainstreaming of biodiversity across sectors, both public and private, is strong ownership and active participation across the project’s life by the institutions involved. (ii) A firm up-front understanding of the underlying political, economic, and territorial contexts of the geographic area in which a project is seeking to establish new or expand existing protected areas is essential to properly gauge the possibilities of achieving such an objective. (iii) Experience in Brazil (and elsewhere) has shown that government commitment to project objectives and design can shift significantly over time due to changes in administrations, both at the federal and state government levels. (iv) Learning from environment projects that use concessional financing, both successful and unsuccessful, can have policy implications that extend beyond the original project’s intentions.

Ethiopia: Sustainable Land Management Project I and II (PPAR)

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Serious long-term degradation of communal areas and farmlands results in substantial losses to the economy. The combination of fragile soils, steep slopes, agroclimatic conditions, environmentally unsustainable intensification of agriculture, and traditional cultivation techniques practiced by smallholder farmers in Ethiopia over many decades has led to excessive soil erosion and land degradation Show MoreSerious long-term degradation of communal areas and farmlands results in substantial losses to the economy. The combination of fragile soils, steep slopes, agroclimatic conditions, environmentally unsustainable intensification of agriculture, and traditional cultivation techniques practiced by smallholder farmers in Ethiopia over many decades has led to excessive soil erosion and land degradation. Two sequential projects were designed and implemented to achieve the SLMP’s objectives. Sustainable Land Management Project Phase I (SLMP I) introduced SLM practices in selected areas of the country to rehabilitate previously uneconomical and unproductive degraded areas within 45 critical watersheds situated in six regional states. SLMP II sought to scale up this support by expanding the geographical coverage to 135 watersheds and continued addressing poor farmland management practices, rapid depletion of vegetation cover, unsustainable livestock grazing practices, and land tenure insecurity. SLMP II also sought to integrate new activities targeting land productivity, deforestation, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Ratings for the Sustainable Land Management Project I are as follows: Overall outcome is satisfactory, Risk to development outcomes is moderate, Bank performance is moderately satisfactory, Borrower performance is moderately satisfactory, and Quality of M&E is negligible. For Sustainable Land Management Project II, they are as follows: Overall outcome is satisfactory, Overall efficacy is substantial, Bank performance is moderately satisfactory, and Quality of M&E is modest. Lessons from these projects include: (i) Watershed management programs can lead to significant land restoration outcomes when appropriate structural and biological measures are introduced to treat the affected landscape with active participation of the local community. (ii) Area closures are relevant for the restoration of degraded lands but require increased investments for alternative supply of forages to convince the local communities to forgo livestock grazing and other benefits during the process of natural regeneration. (iii) Farm productivity growth requires arresting both the on-site and off-site soil erosion to prevent the degradation of farmlands and enable investments in modern farm inputs. (iv) Effective demonstration of upfront economic and livelihood benefits is fundamental for smallholder farmers to protect and maintain the SLM practices introduced on their lands through project support. (v) In drought-prone areas, small-scale irrigation is the key enabler for translating the benefits of land restoration into reduction in household vulnerability to climate shocks through income diversification and protection against droughts. (vi) Market-oriented agroforestry interventions (for example, Acacia decurrens) that provide sustainable income for smallholders can be vital ingredients in creating incentives for the adoption of biological measures for land restoration and improving household resilience to climate shocks.

Nicaragua: Fourth Roads Rehabilitation and Maintenance Project and Rural Roads Infrastructure Improvement Project (PPAR)

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The World Bank has supported the road sector in Nicaragua since early 1990. It has helped remove road infrastructure bottlenecks, introduced innovations in road work delivery and maintenance, and strengthened capacity and institutions in the sector. In the course of this three-decade collaboration, cooperative-based road maintenance enterprises, concrete block roads, and concrete block surfacing Show MoreThe World Bank has supported the road sector in Nicaragua since early 1990. It has helped remove road infrastructure bottlenecks, introduced innovations in road work delivery and maintenance, and strengthened capacity and institutions in the sector. In the course of this three-decade collaboration, cooperative-based road maintenance enterprises, concrete block roads, and concrete block surfacing through communitybased surfacing units have become salient features of the World Bank’s engagement in the sector. Both projects in this assessment, the Fourth Roads Rehabilitation and Maintenance Project and the Rural Roads Infrastructure Improvement Project, approved in 2006 and 2011, respectively, were preceded by the original Rehabilitation and Maintenance Project and the Second and Third Road Rehabilitation and Maintenance Projects. These projects were approved by the World Bank between 1996 and 2001. They were followed by the ongoing Urban Access Improvement Project, which was approved in 2017. Ratings for the Fourth Roads Rehabilitation and Maintenance Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Ratings for the Rural Roads Infrastructure Improvement Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was substantial, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was substantial. This assessment offers the following lessons: (i) Rigor in the selection of roads to be financed and continued support for road planning can help countries use resources effectively and create a planning culture. (ii) Contract features and strict enforcement appear critical to taking full advantage of performance-based routine maintenance contracts. (iii) Upgrading rural roads to all-weather access needs to be comprehensive. (iv) Providing limited technical assistance support in many areas with little upfront preparation might restrict project results. (v) Close stakeholder involvement and post-completion outreach strategies might increase the usefulness of project-financed studies. (vi) A strong results framework is likely to facilitate results measurement.

Croatia: Revenue Administration Modernization Project (PPAR)

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The development objective of the Croatia Revenue Administration Modernization Project was to achieve further improvements in tax efficiency, taxpayer services, and tax compliance through capacity building and systems improvement in the Croatia Tax Administration (CTA). For purposes of this review, three sub-objectives are assessed: (i) improvements in efficiency; (ii) improvements in taxpayer Show MoreThe development objective of the Croatia Revenue Administration Modernization Project was to achieve further improvements in tax efficiency, taxpayer services, and tax compliance through capacity building and systems improvement in the Croatia Tax Administration (CTA). For purposes of this review, three sub-objectives are assessed: (i) improvements in efficiency; (ii) improvements in taxpayer services; and (iii) improvements in tax compliance. Ratings for the Revenue Administration Modernization Project are as follows: Outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, Risk to development outcome was negligible, Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately unsatisfactory. This assessment offers the following lessons: (i) Poor quality at entry and lack of readiness for implementation contributed to significant implementation delays and limited results. (ii) Given that the main driver of the tax administration reforms was Croatia’s bid for membership of the EU, the project could have better secured the government’s commitment to reforms up front. (iii) In projects aiming to improve tax revenue administration, the right balance must be struck between institutional reform and hardware needs (buildings and information and communications technologies). (iv) High TTL turnover could be mitigated by ensuring adequate capacity in the field with the presence of competent local staff.

Jordan: Cultural Heritage, Tourism, and Urban Development Project (PPAR)

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Madagascar: Emergency Support to Critical Education, Health, and Nutrition Services Project and Additional Financing (PPAR)

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The World Bank suspended operations in Madagascar in 2009 after a coup d’état and establishment of a de facto government. The unconstitutional regime change caused a prolonged period of political crisis, and together with the 2008 financial crisis, threatened to reverse a decade of sustained gains in social and economic indicators. The dearth of public financing for basic social services and the Show MoreThe World Bank suspended operations in Madagascar in 2009 after a coup d’état and establishment of a de facto government. The unconstitutional regime change caused a prolonged period of political crisis, and together with the 2008 financial crisis, threatened to reverse a decade of sustained gains in social and economic indicators. The dearth of public financing for basic social services and the withdrawal of most donors during the protracted political crisis were especially concerning. The Emergency Support to Critical Education, Health, and Nutrition Services Project was prepared in 2012 after the World Bank’s reengagement in Madagascar and before reentry of other partners. The project’s objective was “to preserve critical education, health, and nutrition service delivery in targeted vulnerable areas.” The project initially focused on five of Madagascar’s poorest and most vulnerable regions, where other donors were not active, and eventually extended nutrition services only to four additional regions (of 22 regions in the country). Ratings for the Emergency Support to Critical Education, Health, and Nutrition Services Project and Additional Financing are as follows: Outcome was highly satisfactory, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Quality of monitoring and evaluation was modest. This assessment offers the following lessons, which focus on the challenges of further strengthening and sustaining a multisectoral approach to nutrition raised in this report: (i) A multisectoral approach, which delivers a range of services that benefit communities, can have a synergistic and impactful effect on the health and nutrition of mothers and children. (ii) The effectiveness and efficiency of Madagascar’s nutrition efforts are contingent on the ONN fully assuming its primary mandate of multisectoral coordination, with the full support and recognition of the public sector, at all levels of government, and in partnership with leaders and stakeholders in the political, administrative, religious, and traditional arenas and in the private sector. (iii) The roles and comparative advantages of the regions and districts in the strategic management and implementation of service delivery, including the support and encouragement of cross-sectoral synergies, will continue to be underexploited as long as the government’s structure is highly centralized. (iv) Successful mobilization of domestic and international resources, planning, programming, and priority setting—including managing the tensions between the goals of expanding nutrition coverage and strengthening existing services—will be difficult to achieve without investments in ONN capacity. Over and above the capacity strengthening needed, improved aid effectiveness and the sustainability of Madagascar’s nutrition efforts also depend on development partners working closely with ONN and the regions and supporting their development plans and priorities, and on an evolution from projects to program support. (v) The World Bank can play a pivotal role in supporting ONN to assume its multisectoral coordination role by advocating to the highest levels of government the importance of prioritizing nutrition as a means of achieving its development objectives and of allocating more budgetary resources to this end, and in supporting the decentralization process to empower regions. (vi) Emergency operations can provide an opportunity for embarking on broader development efforts, as shown by this project, whose interventions transcended recovery efforts. However, the inclusion of such development support without attention to sustainability can undermine gains postproject.

Madagascar: Projet d’Appui d’Urgence aux Services Essentiels d’Éducation, de Santé et de Nutrition et à son financement additionnel (PPAR)

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En 2009, la Banque mondiale a suspendu ses opérations à Madagascar suite à un coup d’état et l’installation d’un gouvernement de facto. Le changement de régime inconstitutionnel provoqua une période de crise politique prolongée qui, ajoutée à la crise financière de 2008, a menacé de renverser une décennie de progrès soutenus des indicateurs sociaux et économiques. Particulièrement inquiétant Show MoreEn 2009, la Banque mondiale a suspendu ses opérations à Madagascar suite à un coup d’état et l’installation d’un gouvernement de facto. Le changement de régime inconstitutionnel provoqua une période de crise politique prolongée qui, ajoutée à la crise financière de 2008, a menacé de renverser une décennie de progrès soutenus des indicateurs sociaux et économiques. Particulièrement inquiétant était le problème du manque de financement public destiné aux services sociaux de base et du retrait des partenaires financiers durant cette crise politique prolongée. Le Projet d’Appui d’Urgence aux Services Essentiels d’Éducation, de Santé et de Nutrition fut préparé en 2012, juste après le réengagement de la Banque mondiale et juste avant le retour des autres partenaires. L’objectif du projet était « … de préserver la fourniture des services essentiels d’éducation, de santé et de nutrition dans les zones vulnérables ciblées. » À l’origine, le projet s’est concentré sur cinq des plus pauvres et plus vulnérables régions de Madagascar, là où les autres partenaires financiers n’étaient pas actifs, pour finalement étendre seulement ses services de nutrition à quatre régions supplémentaires (sur un total de 22 régions du pays). Les évaluations du Projet d’Appui d’Urgence aux Services Essentiels d’Éducation, de Santé et de Nutrition et de financement supplémentaire sont les suivantes: les résultats ont été très satisfaisants, la performance de la Banque a été modérément satisfaisante et la qualité du suivi et de l'évaluation était modeste. De cette évaluation se dégagent les leçons suivantes qui visent à mettre l’accent sur les défis posés pour renforcer davantage et assurer la durabilité d'une approche multisectorielle à la nutrition soulevés dans ce rapport : (i) Une approche multisectorielle fournissant une gamme de services qui bénéficient aux communautés peut avoir un effet synergique et des répercussions importantes sur la santé et la nutrition des mères et des enfants. (ii) L’efficacité et l’efficience des efforts de Madagascar en matière de nutrition dépendent des efforts de l'Office National de Nutrition (ONN) à assumer pleinement son mandat principal de coordination multisectorielle, avec le plein soutien et la reconnaissance du secteur public, à tous les niveaux du gouvernement, et en partenariat avec les dirigeants et les parties prenantes dans les domaines politique, administratif, religieux et traditionnel et dans le secteur privé. (iii) Les rôles et avantages comparatifs des régions et des districts dans la gestion stratégique et la mise en œuvre des fournitures de services, notamment l'encouragement et le soutien aux synergies intersectorielles, continueront d'être sous-exploités tant que la structure du gouvernement restera fortement centralisée. (iv) Une mobilisation réussie des ressources nationales et internationales, la planification, programmation et définition des priorités, notamment en ce qui concerne la gestion des tensions entre les objectifs d'élargissement de la couverture nutritionnelle et ceux de renforcement des services existants, seront difficiles à réaliser en l'absence d’investissements pour développer les capacités de l’ONN. Au-delà de la nécessité de renforcer les capacités, améliorer l’efficacité de l'aide et la durabilité des efforts de Madagascar en matière de nutrition va également dépendre de l’engagement des partenaires au développement à travailler en étroite collaboration avec l'ONN et les régions, de leur appui aux plans et priorités de développement de ceux-ci et de l'évolution du soutien des projets vers une approche programme. (v) La Banque mondiale peut jouer un rôle central, notamment en aidant l'ONN à assumer son rôle de coordination multisectorielle ; en faisant valoir auprès des plus hautes instances du gouvernement l'importance de donner priorité à la nutrition comme moyen d'atteindre les objectifs de développement et d'allouer davantage de ressources budgétaires à cette fin ; et en apportant un appui au processus national de décentralisation pour donner aux régions les moyens de se prendre en charge et d’agir. (vi) Les opérations d’urgence peuvent être l’occasion d’explorer et de lancer des efforts de développement plus larges, comme le montre ce projet dont les interventions ont transcendé les efforts de redressement entrepris. Cependant, l'inclusion d'un tel appui au développement sans une attention accordée à sa durabilité peut, après le projet, compromettre les gains réalisés. English version: Madagascar: Emergency Support to Critical Education, Health, and Nutrition Services Project and Additional Financing (PPAR)

Croatia: Justice Sector Support Project (PPAR)

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Croatia has one of the highest per capita incomes ($15,870 in 2018) among World Bank borrowers. It has a small population (4.179 million in 2019) and a large tradable goods sector; imports and exports accounted for 48.8 and 51.1 percent, respectively, of the gross domestic product in 2017. In 2013, Croatia joined the European Union (EU) as the 28th member state. Since then, the country has reaped Show MoreCroatia has one of the highest per capita incomes ($15,870 in 2018) among World Bank borrowers. It has a small population (4.179 million in 2019) and a large tradable goods sector; imports and exports accounted for 48.8 and 51.1 percent, respectively, of the gross domestic product in 2017. In 2013, Croatia joined the European Union (EU) as the 28th member state. Since then, the country has reaped significant benefits from EU transfers. The World Bank Group provided substantial support to help Croatia align with EU policies and to strengthen the public sector’s capacity to administer and absorb EU funding. Compared with most peer countries in the EU, Croatia has weaker governance, a less business-friendly environment for investment and entrepreneurship, and relatively weak human capital indicators (World Bank 2018b).The project development objective (PDO) was to improve the efficiency of Croatia’s justice system. The project was restructured in 2013 and 2015, but the PDO remained unchanged. The rationale for the Justice Sector Support Project (JSSP) was that the efficiency of the justice system was hampered by the large existing case backlog in the court system, poor court infrastructure, poor enforcement of judgments, and in 2015, a weak personal bankruptcy framework. An additional factor, although part of the neither PDO nor of Croatia’s pre-accession requirements to the European Commission, was to address concerns expressed by the European Union (EU in their annual country reports. The EU stated that the Croatian justice sector had several deficiencies related to court performance that needed to be addressed once accession had occurred. Ratings for the Justice Sector Support Project are as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Overall efficacy was substantial, Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and Quality of monitoring and evaluation was modest. This assessment offers the following lessons: (i) At the design stage, a diagnostic assessment of the main contributors to court backlogs and consultations with major stakeholders could have informed project design to address other important constraints to achieving the PDO. (ii) When infrastructure works need to be ready for implementation at project start-up, it is important to verify that this is the case in advance. (iii) Delays in critical reviews during project implementation can compromise midterm corrections. (iv) When elections are in the near future, continuity risks can be attenuated by briefing key opposition politicians on the rationale for a project.