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Report/Evaluation Type:Country-Focused EvaluationsProject Level Evaluations (PPARs)
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Turkey CLR Review FY12-16

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Turkey is an upper middle income country with a GNI per capita of USD 9,950 dollars in current US dollars (2015).The government set out its objectives in the Ninth Development Plan for 2007-13 and the 2012-14 Medium-Term Program. Four priorities stood out: (i) pursue sound macroeconomic and structural fiscal policies to maintain stability and reduce vulnerabilities, (ii) improve the investment Show MoreTurkey is an upper middle income country with a GNI per capita of USD 9,950 dollars in current US dollars (2015).The government set out its objectives in the Ninth Development Plan for 2007-13 and the 2012-14 Medium-Term Program. Four priorities stood out: (i) pursue sound macroeconomic and structural fiscal policies to maintain stability and reduce vulnerabilities, (ii) improve the investment climate and labor market to increase competitiveness and create jobs, especially for women and youth, (iii) reform education, health service provision, and social welfare to increase productivity and promote equal opportunity, and (iv) continue reforms of energy and water sectors, and invest in increasing energy efficiency. In support of the government's objectives, the WBG Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) pursued reforms in three areas for enhancing competitiveness and employment, improving equity and public services, and deepening sustainable development. The CPS was extended by one year to include FY16, in part to allow the CPS period to be aligned with the political cycle, as parliamentary elections were scheduled for mid-2015.The CPS supported the government's priorities and was adjusted during the PLR to reflect changing priorities, although the adjustment was not robust enough to reflect economic vulnerabilities. The program areas were selective, but program objectives were unfocused owing to their many dimensions, which diminished the program's impact. Development policy operations and project lending were complemented by economic and sector work and technical assistance; however, the non-lending portfolio was spread thinly over many areas.In Focus Area 1, there was limited progress in increasing domestic savings and enhancing external resilience while progress was mixed on the investment and business climate objective. The objective on sustaining macroeconomic stability, domestic savings, strengthen exports and external resilience had multiple dimensions not reflected in the two outcome indicators that covered a narrow range of the objective. Corporate governance was improved through more extensive firm audits, and enhanced reporting and disclosure requirements. In Focus Area II performance was adequate, with some progress on gender equality and a more inclusive labor market, and evidence of improved equity in the provision of health services. While work remains to be done in health to improve client satisfaction, broad measures of health outcomes show progress in improving health outcomes during the program period. In Focus Area III, good progress was made in increasing the supply of energy and use of renewable energy, mixed progress on improving the sustainability of Turkish cities, and limited achievements in strengthening environmental management and adaptation to climate change.

Peru: Rural Electrification Project (PPAR)

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Peru has been one of the Latin America and the Caribbean Region’s fastest-growing economies. It grew an average 6.2 percent between 2004 and 2013. Moderate poverty was more than halved from 58 percent to 22 percent of the population between 2004 and 2015. Extreme poverty, which is mainly rural, also fell from 16 percent to 4 percent during that period. Although urban inequality declined Show MorePeru has been one of the Latin America and the Caribbean Region’s fastest-growing economies. It grew an average 6.2 percent between 2004 and 2013. Moderate poverty was more than halved from 58 percent to 22 percent of the population between 2004 and 2015. Extreme poverty, which is mainly rural, also fell from 16 percent to 4 percent during that period. Although urban inequality declined substantially, rural inequality was reduced only modestly. To avoid a reversal of its achievements, the government needs to raise the quality of basic services, expand access to markets for the poor and vulnerable, and close infrastructure gaps to facilitate access to markets and services—all of which underscores the high priority of addressing rural electricity needs. The reform of Peru’s electricity sector in 1992 separated the generation, transmission, distribution, and regulatory functions. Based on an efficient enterprise model, the reforms introduced cost-recovery tariffs, and generation and transmission were privatized. A new regulatory body was created, and private companies are now in charge of electricity distribution in Lima and other urban centers. In rural areas, about 20 public electricity distribution companies (EDCs) provide electricity service. Most of the EDCs have performed well operationally and financially, with losses of less than 12 percent and payment rates above 95 percent. In 2005, when the first Rural Electrification Project (REP I) was appraised, Peru had a rural electrification rate of 30 percent—one of the lowest in the Region. According to the Ministry of Energy and Mines, more than 300,000 isolated households in rural areas could be reached only through renewable energy technologies, specifically individual solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Prior to REP I, service providers allocated negligible funding to meet this off-grid demand through renewable energy. The scarcity of rural electricity—coupled with the broader lack of access to infrastructure—have perpetuated the cycle of low quality of life, poor education and medical care, and limited opportunities for economic development in Peru’s rural areas. Ratings for this project were as follows: outcome was satisfactory, risk to development outcome was negligible, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from this project included: i) The promotion of productive uses of electricity needs consistent and adequate levels of technical assistance and investment support, without which their sustainability is put at risk. (ii) Achieving the financial sustainability of solar photovoltaic systems remains a challenge that the government and electricity distribution companies need to address. (iii) To reach “the last mile” of rural electrification while ensuring sustainability, the government and the EDCs need to take specific actions.

Moldova CLR Review FY14-17

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Moldova is a small, lower-middle income economy with a GNI per capita of $2,240 in 2015 (a decline from 2014). In 2015, the economy suffered from an adverse external environment, a summer drought, and a banking crisis, but IMF reports that the economy expanded by 4.1 percent in 2016. After 1999, the country has had a high economic growth and significant progress in reducing poverty and boosting Show MoreMoldova is a small, lower-middle income economy with a GNI per capita of $2,240 in 2015 (a decline from 2014). In 2015, the economy suffered from an adverse external environment, a summer drought, and a banking crisis, but IMF reports that the economy expanded by 4.1 percent in 2016. After 1999, the country has had a high economic growth and significant progress in reducing poverty and boosting shared prosperity, with 4.8 percent growth in consumption among the bottom 40 percent in 2009-14, compared with 1.3 percent for the entire population. The 2016 Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) notes that the national poverty rate shrank from 26 percent in 2007 to 11 percent in 2014. The poverty reduction in Moldova has been driven largely by remittances and pensions. The country ranked 107 out of 188 countries on the 2015 Human Development Index, representing a very modest improvement from 2010. Moldova’s ranking on the Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) declined significantly on Control of Corruption (from around 29 in 2011 to 17 in 2015). IEG ratings are as follows: development outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, and World Bank Group (WBG) performance was fair. Two main lessons from this review: First, that caution is called for in moving rapidly to focus on budget support and results based operations under circumstances where there is concern about the quality of systems and controls in financial management and procurement. Second, that results frameworks would need to be designed with outcome indicators that clearly measure the achievement of the stated objectives, taking into account country context and WBG interventions.

Argentina: GEF Sustainable Transport and Air Quality Program (PPAR)

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The $3.99 million Argentina Global Environment Facility (GEF) Sustainable Transport and Air Quality Program (the GEF Project or the project) was approved on November 4, 2008. The project objectives were to assist beneficiary cities in: (i) reducing the rate of greenhouse gas emissions by increasing the use of less energy-intensive and cleaner modes of transport; and ii) inducing policy changes in Show MoreThe $3.99 million Argentina Global Environment Facility (GEF) Sustainable Transport and Air Quality Program (the GEF Project or the project) was approved on November 4, 2008. The project objectives were to assist beneficiary cities in: (i) reducing the rate of greenhouse gas emissions by increasing the use of less energy-intensive and cleaner modes of transport; and ii) inducing policy changes in favor of sustainable transport policies. Ratings for GEF Sustainable Transport and Air Quality Program were as follows: outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, risk to development outcome was negligible to low, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrow performance was moderately unsatisfactory. Lessons include: (i) Broad and ambitious long-term objectives can result in implementation and efficacy challenges when the scope and timeframe of the project are limited. (ii) When selecting project implementation arrangements, whether centralized at the national level or decentralized, the World Bank should assess local capacity issues with care and realism. (iii) The rationale for linking the implementation of GEF projects with that of larger urban transport operations needs to be assessed on an individual project basis. (iv) While overall funding under GEF operations is often limited, GEF projects can promote innovative sustainable transport policy initiatives.

Nepal: Poverty Alleviation Fund Project

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Ratings for the Poverty Alleviation Fund I were as follows: outcome was satisfactory, risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons The community-driven development (CDD) approach can provide a powerful organizing framework the welfare of communities. (ii) The sustainability of CDD programs hinges on Show MoreRatings for the Poverty Alleviation Fund I were as follows: outcome was satisfactory, risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons The community-driven development (CDD) approach can provide a powerful organizing framework the welfare of communities. (ii) The sustainability of CDD programs hinges on finding a wise balance between program agility – achieved through independence of the implementing agency – and government ownership and coordination with line ministries. (iii) A sound assessment of community needs is essential for CDD programs. (iv) Explicitly acknowledging and addressing diversity within communities can help achieve substantial results for marginalized groups. (v) Income-generating subprojects require complementary activities, such as specific training and help in accessing markets, which need to be embedded in project design to ensure success. (vi) A carefully planned and implemented pilot phase for a project provides essential learning for a successful scaling up. (vii) Robust data collection and effective analysis of available data are crucial to modifying the project design and to identifying progress and results.

Kyrgyz Republic: Rural Education Project (PPAR)

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General education in the Kyrgyz Republic comprises 11 grades, one less than in most developed countries. The system is robust in both enrollment rates and access from a gender equality perspective. The primary to lower secondary transition rate is universal, and the net enrollment rate in lower secondary is about 90 percent, and in higher secondary is about 72 percent. General education is taught Show MoreGeneral education in the Kyrgyz Republic comprises 11 grades, one less than in most developed countries. The system is robust in both enrollment rates and access from a gender equality perspective. The primary to lower secondary transition rate is universal, and the net enrollment rate in lower secondary is about 90 percent, and in higher secondary is about 72 percent. General education is taught in Kyrgyz or Russian in 90 percent of schools and in Uzbek in 9.4 percent of schools. Teaching is available in more than one language in about 25 percent of schools, often leading to parallel classes being taught in different languages within the same school, resulting in increased cost of education provision. Governance in the education sector was, and continues to be weak; the Ministry of Education and Science is nominally responsible for setting education policy and providing oversight in the education sector. However, aspects of the system operate largely independent of its oversight, leading to a disconnect between funding and policy execution with associated inefficiencies. The project development objective for the $15.00 million Rural Education Project was to assist in improving learning and learning conditions in primary and secondary schools, with priority attention to rural areas. Project ratings were as follows: outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Lessons include (i) A selective, and realistic approach to design is likely to create a more closely articulated link (attribution) between World Bank interventions and outcomes. (ii) Relatively inexpensive but strategically positioned interventions can have a significant effect. (iii) Robust monitoring and evaluation is a fundamental component of project management and is integral to the articulation of, and sometimes to the realization of, desired outcome. (iv) It is critical to promote and nurture collaboration with other donors in pursuit of common, strategic goals.

The Philippines: Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan with a Catastrophe Deferred Drawdown Option (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the Philippines Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan with a Catastrophe Deferred Drawdown Option (CAT DDO). The loan of US$500 million was approved in September 2011, fully drawn down in December 2011 when the disbursement trigger was met, and closed in October 2014. The PPAR reviews the performance of this operation based on Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the Philippines Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan with a Catastrophe Deferred Drawdown Option (CAT DDO). The loan of US$500 million was approved in September 2011, fully drawn down in December 2011 when the disbursement trigger was met, and closed in October 2014. The PPAR reviews the performance of this operation based on IEG and Operations Policy and Country Services (OPCS) guidelines on program evaluations. The Philippines CAT DDO aimed to enhance the capacity of the Government of the Philippines to manage the impacts of natural disasters. To this end, the program supported objectives in three policy areas: (i) strengthening the institutional capacity for disaster risk management (DRM) efforts; (ii) mainstreaming DRM into development planning; and (iii) better managing the government's fiscal exposure to natural hazard impacts. The operation was complemented by a technical assistance program from the World Bank Global Fund for Disaster Risk Reduction (GFDRR) to provide targeted support in these areas. Ratings for the Disaster Risk Management and Development Policy Loan project were as follows: outcome was satisfactory, risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons gleamed from the review are: (i) The CAT DDO proved to be a useful instrument in the Philippines for achieving the dual objectives of supporting fundamental DRM reforms and providing quick-release financing for disaster recovery and reconstruction. (ii) As with all policy reforms, in-depth analytical work and well-targeted technical assistance were critical for achieving results. (iii) In the context of this operation, there were multiple confusions over the purposes of a CAT DDO and the use of the loan proceeds, which call for further clarification in World Bank documents and better communication.

Colombia: Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the Colombia Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan with a catastrophe deferred drawdown option (CAT DDO). The loan of $150 million was approved on December 18, 2008, became effective on June 25, 2009, and closed on January 31, 2012. The PPAR reviews the performance of the operation based on Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the Colombia Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan with a catastrophe deferred drawdown option (CAT DDO). The loan of $150 million was approved on December 18, 2008, became effective on June 25, 2009, and closed on January 31, 2012. The PPAR reviews the performance of the operation based on Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) and Operations Policy and Country Services guidelines on program evaluations. The loan sought to strengthen the government’s program for reducing risks resulting from adverse natural events. Ratings for the Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan project were as follows: outcome was satisfactory, risk to development outcome was negligible to low, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons include (i) The CAT DDO can help advance the DRM reform agenda and strengthen the clients’ system to respond to disaster risks. (ii) The CAT DDO can complement other World Bank instruments for supporting DRM reforms. (iii) The design and implementation of the CAT DDO in Colombia raised some issues that deserve further clarification.

Sri Lanka: Second Community Water Supply and Sanitation Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Second Community Water Supply and Sanitation Project in Sri Lanka. The objective of the project was to increase service coverage and achieve effective and sustained use of water and sanitation services in rural communities in Sri Lanka. Project ratings were as follows: outcome was moderately Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Second Community Water Supply and Sanitation Project in Sri Lanka. The objective of the project was to increase service coverage and achieve effective and sustained use of water and sanitation services in rural communities in Sri Lanka. Project ratings were as follows: outcome was moderately satisfactory, risk to development outcome was substantial, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Lessons from this report include: (i) Lack of continuity in M&E and its utilization by an implementing agency beyond project completion undermines sustainability of development outcomes. (ii) Technical soundness of initial design and quality of construction affect performance of CBOs. (iii) Strong a115781nd consistent institutional and technical support is needed to achieve sustainable service delivery in CBO schemes. (iv) Proactive and adaptive project supervision in response to exogenous events can help safeguard project efficacy.

Brazil: Pernambuco Education Results and Accountability Project (PPAR)

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The request for this project was initiated in 2008 by the State Government of Pernambuco and the government of Brazil. At the time, improving education quality, efficiency, equity and sector management were priorities for the State Government of Pernambuco. Challenges at the time of project preparation were the flow of students and the quality of education in fundamental and secondary education, Show MoreThe request for this project was initiated in 2008 by the State Government of Pernambuco and the government of Brazil. At the time, improving education quality, efficiency, equity and sector management were priorities for the State Government of Pernambuco. Challenges at the time of project preparation were the flow of students and the quality of education in fundamental and secondary education, as Pernambuco’s Basic Education Development Index (IDEB) for fundamental and secondary education scores were lower than the Brazil’s overall score according to the Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira (INEP). The objectives of the operation were to (a) improve the quality, efficiency, and equity of public education; and (b) introduce management reforms that will lead to greater efficiency in the use of the Borrower’s public resources in the education sector. Ratings for the Pernambuco Education Results and Accountability Project were as follows: outcome was satisfactory, risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons include (i) Formidable results (dropout, distortion, student learning) can be achieved, but these results take time and may not be evident within the typical implementation period of a World Bank operation. (ii) The success and sustainability of this operation depends largely on the government’s commitment to (and ownership of) its comprehensive sector program, sector policies, and sector management system. (iii) Assessment data were used for multiple purposes (including pedagogical purposes) and among multiple stakeholders. (iv) Equity objectives require clear definition and measurement and may need additional efforts. (v) Although the reform began before the World Bank was involved, the World Bank added value through transmission of knowledge from experiences and lessons in Brazil and Pernambuco.