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Report/Evaluation Type:Country-Focused EvaluationsProject Level Evaluations (PPARs)
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Togo CLR Review FY08-17

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This is a validation of the Completion and Learning Review (CLR) for the World Bank Group’s (WBG) engagement in Togo covering two Interim Strategy Notes (ISNs) for the period, FY08-FY10; and FY12-13. In line with the CLR, IEG does not rate the overall development outcome and the WBG’s performance due to data limitations. After Togo became independent in 1960, income per capita almost doubled Show MoreThis is a validation of the Completion and Learning Review (CLR) for the World Bank Group’s (WBG) engagement in Togo covering two Interim Strategy Notes (ISNs) for the period, FY08-FY10; and FY12-13. In line with the CLR, IEG does not rate the overall development outcome and the WBG’s performance due to data limitations. After Togo became independent in 1960, income per capita almost doubled to reach $534 in 1980, driven by open and market oriented policies, a boom in phosphate prices and efforts towards a more effective public administration. However, these gains were reversed during the next two decades. In the 1980s, the country followed a more inward looking economic policy and, during the 1990s, it entered a period of political tension and economic instability. Togo fell into internal and external debt service arrears including with the World Bank. Political stability returned gradually beginning in the mid-2000s and the international development community returned. Economic growth during the last decade has averaged four percent. Despite a solid growth performance, poverty declined only slightly, from 61.7 percent in 2006 to 55.1 percent in 2015. Income per capita is yet to reach the level the country had achieved in 1980. Togo’s ranking in the Human Development Index has fallen from 95th out of 124 countries in 1980 to 166th out of 187 countries in 2013. Togo recently experienced negative macroeconomic developments that brought the share of public debt over GDP from 32 percent in 2010 to 80.8 percent in 2016 financed by both domestic and external borrowings. Successful efforts at increasing public revenues from 18.8 percent of GDP in 2013 to 21.0 percent in 2015 were not enough to cover fast-growing public investments on infrastructure. Efforts at bringing the fiscal accounts under control are underway. The Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved on May 5, 2017, a new three-year arrangement for Togo under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) for SDR176.16 million to support the country’s economic and financial reforms.

Peru CLR Review FY12-16

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Peru is a Middle-Income Country (MIC) with a GNI per capita of US$6,130 in 2015. During the review period, the country’s average GDP growth was 4.4 percent, compared to 1.5 percent in the LAC region. Peru has been successful in reducing poverty. For example, national poverty declined from 59 percent in 2004 to 22 percent in 2015. Inequality also declined per the Gini index from 52.1 in 2004 Show MorePeru is a Middle-Income Country (MIC) with a GNI per capita of US$6,130 in 2015. During the review period, the country’s average GDP growth was 4.4 percent, compared to 1.5 percent in the LAC region. Peru has been successful in reducing poverty. For example, national poverty declined from 59 percent in 2004 to 22 percent in 2015. Inequality also declined per the Gini index from 52.1 in 2004 to 44.4 in 2015. However, there are governance challenges at the subnational level due to the unfinished decentralization agenda. ed on overcoming social gaps and enhancing productivity, while maintaining a sound macro framework. The World Bank Group (WBG) Country Partnership Strategy (CPS), which covered the period FY12-16, was prepared within this context. The CPS had four strategic objectives (or focus areas): (i) increased access and quality of social services for the poor; (ii) connecting the poor to services and markets; (iii) sustainable growth and productivity; and (iv) improved public sector performance for greater inclusion. The WBG supported these areas using a wide-range of instruments, including investment operations, policy lending, and analytical work and advisory services. The CPS’s four strategic objectives reflected the Government’s development goals. At mid-term of the CPS, the government shifted its priorities towards productivity and competitiveness.

Ukraine - Development of State Statistics System for Monitoring Social and Economic Transformation (devstat) Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the Development of State Statistics System for Monitoring Social and Economic Transformation (DEVSTAT) project in Ukraine. This project was one of two pilot projects (along with Burkina Faso) supported under the Statistics Capacity Building Program (STATCAP). DEVSTAT was approved by the World Bank on March 25, 2004. The original closing Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the Development of State Statistics System for Monitoring Social and Economic Transformation (DEVSTAT) project in Ukraine. This project was one of two pilot projects (along with Burkina Faso) supported under the Statistics Capacity Building Program (STATCAP). DEVSTAT was approved by the World Bank on March 25, 2004. The original closing date of the project, December 31, 2009, was extended three times due to delays in the ratification of the loan agreement, delays in the procurement of advanced information communication technology, and to allow for the national rollout of the integrated statistical data processing system (ISDPS). The project closed on December 31, 2013. Total project cost was estimated to be $37.94 million, of which $32 million would be financed by the World Bank and $5.94 million by borrower contributions. Additional Financing of $10 million was granted in December 2012, at which time the statement of objectives was formally revised. The revised objective aligned the statements of objectives in the loan agreement and the project appraisal document. Actual total cost at project closure was $45.19 million, financed by a loan of $42 million from the World Bank and a contribution of $3.19 million from the borrower. The objective of this project was “to build a sustainable state statistical system, which would efficiently and effectively collect, process, and disseminate accurate, timely, coherent, and trustworthy statistical data concerning the economy and social conditions of the borrower required by the government, business, and society to make informed decisions, and encompassing a comprehensive reform of the State Statistical System of Ukraine, primarily through the modernization of the State Statistical Committee.”

Lao People’s Democratic Republic - Second Education Development Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses a primary education project in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the Second Education Development Project, commonly known as EDP2. This program was financed by the World Bank and the government of Australia. The project was approved in April 2004, and closed in August 2013. The World Bank’s total contribution was $28.2 million. This Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses a primary education project in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the Second Education Development Project, commonly known as EDP2. This program was financed by the World Bank and the government of Australia. The project was approved in April 2004, and closed in August 2013. The World Bank’s total contribution was $28.2 million. This report was prepared by Erik Bloom, Senior Economist, IEG and Inthansone Phetsering, consultant. The findings are based on an extensive review of the literature, project reports, and a field visit, December 4–18, 2016. This mission included a field visit to Oudamxay province. The mission talked to current and retired staff involved in the project’s implementation in the Ministry of Education and Sports and with staff from the World Bank and the government of Australia. The mission also met with education officials at the province and district levels in Oudamxay province. The mission also visited five remote schools in two districts. As much as possible, the PPAR cites publically available documents, and when appropriate, it refers to interviews and internal documents. The project’s credit agreement states the project’s development objective as: To assist the Borrower to achieve universal completion of primary education by implementing the education policies and reform actions set forth in its Letter of Education Policy, including increasing access to, and the completion of, primary school in the project provinces, improving the quality of access to, and the completion of, primary school in the project provinces, improving the quality of education, and building the policy development and management capacity of its Ministry of Education.

Mozambique CLR Review FY12-15

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Mozambique is a low income country with a GNI per capita of $1,120 in 2014. The country experienced rapid growth over the last 25 years, but high poverty rates persist, particularly in the rural areas. Data from the National Statistics Institute show that the poverty headcount ratio fell from 70 to 46 percent between 1996 and 2014. The country’s reliance on capital intensive investments led to Show MoreMozambique is a low income country with a GNI per capita of $1,120 in 2014. The country experienced rapid growth over the last 25 years, but high poverty rates persist, particularly in the rural areas. Data from the National Statistics Institute show that the poverty headcount ratio fell from 70 to 46 percent between 1996 and 2014. The country’s reliance on capital intensive investments led to rapid economic growth but generated relatively few jobs and their ties to the rest of the economy are limited. Unemployment rate remained at 22.6 percent in 2012-2014. The country ranks low in Human Development Index: 180 out of 188 countries. Natural hazards hit the country frequently and hard, and are likely to worsen with climate change. The government’s Action Plan to Reduce Poverty for 2011-2014 (Plano de Acção de Redução de Pobreza -PARP) sought to confront these problems and the WBG’s Country partnership Strategy (CPS) addressed some of these challenges under the pillars of competitiveness and employment (Focus Area I), vulnerability and resilience (Focus Area II), and a foundation pillar, governance and public sector capacity (Focus Area III). In April 2016, the government acknowledged to the IMF that it had borrowed an amount in excess of $1 billion in commercial terms during 2012-2015. The disclosure weakened investors’ confidence in the country’s macroeconomic stability, and contributed to further depreciating the metical. These two factors combined raised the country’s debt to GDP ratio from 60 percent in 2014 to 120 percent in 2016.

Argentina: Buenos Aires Urban Transport Project (Project Performance Assessment Report)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Buenos Aires Urban Transport Project in Argentina. The project’s objectives were to support joint private sector–public sector initiatives to improve the service quality and coverage of mass transit in metropolitan Buenos Aires; support the implementation of the infrastructure improvement obligations Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Buenos Aires Urban Transport Project in Argentina. The project’s objectives were to support joint private sector–public sector initiatives to improve the service quality and coverage of mass transit in metropolitan Buenos Aires; support the implementation of the infrastructure improvement obligations assumed by private concessionaires regarding the metropolitan Buenos Aires passenger rail system; assist in improving traffic safety and urban transport–related environmental quality in metropolitan Buenos Aires; and contribute toward the development of an integrated urban transport (road and rail) system for metropolitan Buenos Aires, and later, to assist in developing integrated urban transport strategies in metropolitan areas in Argentina, including Cordoba, Mendoza, Posadas, Rosario, and Tucuman. Ratings for the Buenos Aires Urban Transport Project in Argentina were as follows: outcome was moderately satisfactory, the risk to development outcome was significant, the Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and the Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Some lessons learned included: (i) Private sector participation cannot achieve efficiency gains if incentives are misaligned. (ii) The creation of new institutions brings long-term gains and benefits when voluntary association and political will are present, as international experience also shows. (iii) Potential fiduciary problems are difficult to detect, which emphasizes the critical importance of training project staff.

Arab Republic of Egypt: Second Pollution Abatement Project (Project Performance Assessment Report)

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Egypt’s rapid population growth (from 36 million in 1973 to 91.5 million in 2015), combined with its economic development and industrialization policies and weak environmental management, have resulted in widespread and severe pollution of Egypt’s critical air, water, and soil resources. In recent decades, the government of Egypt has increasingly attempted to address the pollution threats to Show MoreEgypt’s rapid population growth (from 36 million in 1973 to 91.5 million in 2015), combined with its economic development and industrialization policies and weak environmental management, have resulted in widespread and severe pollution of Egypt’s critical air, water, and soil resources. In recent decades, the government of Egypt has increasingly attempted to address the pollution threats to its public health and environmental conditions, seeking support for its efforts from international financing institutions and bilateral donors. Ratings for the Second Pollution Abatement Project in Egypt were as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, risk to development was significant, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from the report included: (i) Though the use of concessionary financing can be effective in triggering private investments in pollution abatement, operations that rely on donor funding for such financing risk not being scaled up to the point where they can have a major impact on desired pollution outcomes, because of the inherent limitations on the availability of donor funding. (ii) The “carrot and stick” approach employed by the EPAP II model suggests that the appropriate use of financial incentives (concessionary financing) backed by potential administrative/legal threats (environmental enforcement actions) can promote industrial compliance in a country where enforcement strategies alone have been insufficient to generate compliance, especially in the early stages of tackling national pollution. (iii) The use of continuous environmental monitoring systems at industrial sites represents best practice for pollution control projects. (iv) With the uncertainties surrounding the carbon finance market, World Bank operations involving carbon finance–linked projects should undergo careful preparation, delinking implementation schedules if necessary, to avoid risks that may occur during processing. (v) Ensuring careful alignment between project objective and project design is critical to avoiding confusion in determining whether a project has achieved its goals. (vi) Managed carefully, the World Bank’s role in organizing collaboration among its development partners can significantly enhance its ability to scale up its operations in the environmental management sector. (vi) Environmental operations that rely on a credit line mechanism may be limited in their ability to target the most serious pollution issues because of requirements for creditworthiness.

Cameroon CLR Review FY10-14

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Cameroon is a lower middle income, resource-rich country with large potential. Due to its location, the country is the gateway to the economies of Central Africa and plays a central role in the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). The Bank's strategy was well aligned with country challenges and the government's own objectives, with the emphasis of the CAS program on governance Show MoreCameroon is a lower middle income, resource-rich country with large potential. Due to its location, the country is the gateway to the economies of Central Africa and plays a central role in the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). The Bank's strategy was well aligned with country challenges and the government's own objectives, with the emphasis of the CAS program on governance, competitiveness, and public sector services. The program generally did address key challenges for the country, and was largely unchanged in the CAS Progress Report (CASPR), at which time the CAS period was extended to include FY14, but some indicators were dropped and others were weakened primarily in terms of time of delivery. The program aligned quite well to the twin goals, but the poverty dimension of the WBG program could have been even stronger, including the attention to inclusion – although with a poverty rate of 37.5 percent (2014) there is strong overlap between poverty and shared prosperity issues. The CAS program was reasonably well designed in light of country requirements and (significant) constraints, and proved to be quite stable with all nine objectives maintained in the CASPR. It addressed appropriate and important areas, and was designed for gradual and quite modest improvements. The CASPR addressed an important stepping-up of supervision and implementation support,and also a stronger focus on a few selected operations going forward. IEG draws three main lessons from this CLR: First, programs addressing governance need to provide a mix of interventions commensurate with the nature of the objectives, be structured realistically to conditions on the ground and Bank instruments. Second, indicators need to be designed keeping in mind the ability to monitor progress and to measure and assess end results. Third, Bank country program documents including CLRs need to pay clear attention where there are (as for Cameroon) significant indications of broader underlying fiduciary and governance issues. IEG also agrees with the following lessons from the CLR: Centralized approaches to strengthening governance need to be complemented with decentralized and sector-based approaches. The impact of investment lending is much higher when it is accompanied by sector policy and institutional reform which is possible only when government ownership is strong.

Pacific Island Countries CLR Review FY11-17

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This is a summary of six CLR reviews covering the World Bank Group (WBG) programs for the Pacific Island Countries (PICs) of Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Samoa, Tonga, and Tuvalu. The summary is based on IEG’s individual country assessments of the completion and learning reviews prepared for each country. During the period under review, each country prepared a stand-alone Country Show MoreThis is a summary of six CLR reviews covering the World Bank Group (WBG) programs for the Pacific Island Countries (PICs) of Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Samoa, Tonga, and Tuvalu. The summary is based on IEG’s individual country assessments of the completion and learning reviews prepared for each country. During the period under review, each country prepared a stand-alone Country Assistance/Partnership Strategy (CAS/CPS), in contrast to previous engagements that were done under an umbrella regional strategy for the Pacific Islands. Except for Tuvalu’s country program, all CPSs were joint programs between the Bank and IFC. The assessments are based on the original CPSs, since no Performance and Learning Reviews (PLRs) were undertaken for any of the countries. These countries have populations ranging from 10,000 (Tuvalu) to over 200,000 (Samoa)— Tuvalu is the smallest WBG member country. They are among the most remote and geographically dispersed countries in the world, and range from low middle income (Kiribati, US$3,390 GNI per capita in current dollars) to upper middle income (Tuvalu, US$6,120 GNI per capita in current dollars). Some of them joined the WBG as recently as 2010 (Tuvalu). The high cost of operating in these small, remote countries, and limited resources from IDA, constrained the World Bank Group to engage with them at the regional level or through multi-country platforms until 2008, when the governments of Australia and New Zealand decided to enter into funding partnerships with the WBG. These partnerships—combined with significant increases in IDA disaster risk management and climate change—gave the WBG the capacity to operate at scale in the Pacific Island Countries. For most of the countries—except Samoa and Tonga—this program was the first direct engagement with the WBG. All programs were financed by IDA and trust-funds, and some of the countries (Marshall Islands, Micronesia, and Tuvalu) had to be granted an exception for small islands to qualify for IDA funds in light of their high per capita income.

Ghana: Agriculture Development Policy Operation, Phase I–IV (Project Performance Assessment Report)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the outcome and sustainability of two consecutive World Bank–financed programmatic series of DPOs in the agriculture sector in Ghana with a total disbursement of US$ 157 million. Objectives of these two projects include: (i) to increase the contribution of agriculture to growth and poverty reduction; (ii) to improve the management of soil Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the outcome and sustainability of two consecutive World Bank–financed programmatic series of DPOs in the agriculture sector in Ghana with a total disbursement of US$ 157 million. Objectives of these two projects include: (i) to increase the contribution of agriculture to growth and poverty reduction; (ii) to improve the management of soil and water resources; (iii) to enhance productivity and market access among farmers; and (ii) to improve agriculture sector management. Ratings for the First Agriculture Development Policy Operation Series were as follows: outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, risk to development outcome was significant, World Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and borrower performance was moderately unsatisfactory. These ratings differ from the ICR in all four areas. Ratings for the Second Agriculture Development Policy Operation Series were: outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, risk to development outcome was significant, World Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and borrower performance was moderately unsatisfactory. All ratings except for risk to development are different from the ICR. Lessons include: (i) In a sector such as agriculture, in which responsibilities are fragmented across many different directorates and agencies, impact could be heightened by broadening engagement beyond key counterparts in the leading ministry to other directorates charged with delivering program results. (ii) Rigorous assessment of government commitment and ownership is needed not only at the design stage but throughout implementation. (iii) Potential synergies between sector and general budget support operations could be enhanced by more effective coordination and monitoring and feedback between the two. (iv) Defining DPO series objectives in concrete and measurable terms and scaling ambition down to what the actions in the operations can realistically be expected to influence can improve the demonstration of impact and enhance attribution.