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Report/Evaluation Type:Country-Focused EvaluationsProject Level Evaluations (PPARs)
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Kyrgyz Republic: Rural Education Project (PPAR)

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General education in the Kyrgyz Republic comprises 11 grades, one less than in most developed countries. The system is robust in both enrollment rates and access from a gender equality perspective. The primary to lower secondary transition rate is universal, and the net enrollment rate in lower secondary is about 90 percent, and in higher secondary is about 72 percent. General education is taught Show MoreGeneral education in the Kyrgyz Republic comprises 11 grades, one less than in most developed countries. The system is robust in both enrollment rates and access from a gender equality perspective. The primary to lower secondary transition rate is universal, and the net enrollment rate in lower secondary is about 90 percent, and in higher secondary is about 72 percent. General education is taught in Kyrgyz or Russian in 90 percent of schools and in Uzbek in 9.4 percent of schools. Teaching is available in more than one language in about 25 percent of schools, often leading to parallel classes being taught in different languages within the same school, resulting in increased cost of education provision. Governance in the education sector was, and continues to be weak; the Ministry of Education and Science is nominally responsible for setting education policy and providing oversight in the education sector. However, aspects of the system operate largely independent of its oversight, leading to a disconnect between funding and policy execution with associated inefficiencies. The project development objective for the $15.00 million Rural Education Project was to assist in improving learning and learning conditions in primary and secondary schools, with priority attention to rural areas. Project ratings were as follows: outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Lessons include (i) A selective, and realistic approach to design is likely to create a more closely articulated link (attribution) between World Bank interventions and outcomes. (ii) Relatively inexpensive but strategically positioned interventions can have a significant effect. (iii) Robust monitoring and evaluation is a fundamental component of project management and is integral to the articulation of, and sometimes to the realization of, desired outcome. (iv) It is critical to promote and nurture collaboration with other donors in pursuit of common, strategic goals.

The Philippines: Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan with a Catastrophe Deferred Drawdown Option (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the Philippines Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan with a Catastrophe Deferred Drawdown Option (CAT DDO). The loan of US$500 million was approved in September 2011, fully drawn down in December 2011 when the disbursement trigger was met, and closed in October 2014. The PPAR reviews the performance of this operation based on Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the Philippines Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan with a Catastrophe Deferred Drawdown Option (CAT DDO). The loan of US$500 million was approved in September 2011, fully drawn down in December 2011 when the disbursement trigger was met, and closed in October 2014. The PPAR reviews the performance of this operation based on IEG and Operations Policy and Country Services (OPCS) guidelines on program evaluations. The Philippines CAT DDO aimed to enhance the capacity of the Government of the Philippines to manage the impacts of natural disasters. To this end, the program supported objectives in three policy areas: (i) strengthening the institutional capacity for disaster risk management (DRM) efforts; (ii) mainstreaming DRM into development planning; and (iii) better managing the government's fiscal exposure to natural hazard impacts. The operation was complemented by a technical assistance program from the World Bank Global Fund for Disaster Risk Reduction (GFDRR) to provide targeted support in these areas. Ratings for the Disaster Risk Management and Development Policy Loan project were as follows: outcome was satisfactory, risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons gleamed from the review are: (i) The CAT DDO proved to be a useful instrument in the Philippines for achieving the dual objectives of supporting fundamental DRM reforms and providing quick-release financing for disaster recovery and reconstruction. (ii) As with all policy reforms, in-depth analytical work and well-targeted technical assistance were critical for achieving results. (iii) In the context of this operation, there were multiple confusions over the purposes of a CAT DDO and the use of the loan proceeds, which call for further clarification in World Bank documents and better communication.

Colombia: Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the Colombia Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan with a catastrophe deferred drawdown option (CAT DDO). The loan of $150 million was approved on December 18, 2008, became effective on June 25, 2009, and closed on January 31, 2012. The PPAR reviews the performance of the operation based on Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the Colombia Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan with a catastrophe deferred drawdown option (CAT DDO). The loan of $150 million was approved on December 18, 2008, became effective on June 25, 2009, and closed on January 31, 2012. The PPAR reviews the performance of the operation based on Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) and Operations Policy and Country Services guidelines on program evaluations. The loan sought to strengthen the government’s program for reducing risks resulting from adverse natural events. Ratings for the Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan project were as follows: outcome was satisfactory, risk to development outcome was negligible to low, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons include (i) The CAT DDO can help advance the DRM reform agenda and strengthen the clients’ system to respond to disaster risks. (ii) The CAT DDO can complement other World Bank instruments for supporting DRM reforms. (iii) The design and implementation of the CAT DDO in Colombia raised some issues that deserve further clarification.

Sri Lanka: Second Community Water Supply and Sanitation Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Second Community Water Supply and Sanitation Project in Sri Lanka. The objective of the project was to increase service coverage and achieve effective and sustained use of water and sanitation services in rural communities in Sri Lanka. Project ratings were as follows: outcome was moderately Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Second Community Water Supply and Sanitation Project in Sri Lanka. The objective of the project was to increase service coverage and achieve effective and sustained use of water and sanitation services in rural communities in Sri Lanka. Project ratings were as follows: outcome was moderately satisfactory, risk to development outcome was substantial, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Lessons from this report include: (i) Lack of continuity in M&E and its utilization by an implementing agency beyond project completion undermines sustainability of development outcomes. (ii) Technical soundness of initial design and quality of construction affect performance of CBOs. (iii) Strong a115781nd consistent institutional and technical support is needed to achieve sustainable service delivery in CBO schemes. (iv) Proactive and adaptive project supervision in response to exogenous events can help safeguard project efficacy.

Brazil: Pernambuco Education Results and Accountability Project (PPAR)

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The request for this project was initiated in 2008 by the State Government of Pernambuco and the government of Brazil. At the time, improving education quality, efficiency, equity and sector management were priorities for the State Government of Pernambuco. Challenges at the time of project preparation were the flow of students and the quality of education in fundamental and secondary education, Show MoreThe request for this project was initiated in 2008 by the State Government of Pernambuco and the government of Brazil. At the time, improving education quality, efficiency, equity and sector management were priorities for the State Government of Pernambuco. Challenges at the time of project preparation were the flow of students and the quality of education in fundamental and secondary education, as Pernambuco’s Basic Education Development Index (IDEB) for fundamental and secondary education scores were lower than the Brazil’s overall score according to the Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira (INEP). The objectives of the operation were to (a) improve the quality, efficiency, and equity of public education; and (b) introduce management reforms that will lead to greater efficiency in the use of the Borrower’s public resources in the education sector. Ratings for the Pernambuco Education Results and Accountability Project were as follows: outcome was satisfactory, risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons include (i) Formidable results (dropout, distortion, student learning) can be achieved, but these results take time and may not be evident within the typical implementation period of a World Bank operation. (ii) The success and sustainability of this operation depends largely on the government’s commitment to (and ownership of) its comprehensive sector program, sector policies, and sector management system. (iii) Assessment data were used for multiple purposes (including pedagogical purposes) and among multiple stakeholders. (iv) Equity objectives require clear definition and measurement and may need additional efforts. (v) Although the reform began before the World Bank was involved, the World Bank added value through transmission of knowledge from experiences and lessons in Brazil and Pernambuco.

Colombia: Business Productivity and Efficiency Development Policy Loans I-III (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the Colombia Business Productivity and Efficiency Loans, a programmatic series of development policy loans (DPLs) to Colombia implemented in FY06–11. The DPL series had two development objectives: (i) facilitating the operation of businesses and promoting investments to boost productivity and employment levels and (ii) consolidating the Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the Colombia Business Productivity and Efficiency Loans, a programmatic series of development policy loans (DPLs) to Colombia implemented in FY06–11. The DPL series had two development objectives: (i) facilitating the operation of businesses and promoting investments to boost productivity and employment levels and (ii) consolidating the financial sector and capital markets as pillars of economic growth to address the needs of individuals and the productive sector. The objectives were highly relevant to country conditions both at the time of entry and closing, and well aligned to government and World Bank Group strategies. Ratings for Business Productivity and Efficiency Development Policy Loans I-III were as follows: outcome was moderately satisfactory, risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons include (i) The experience of this DPL program suggests that in-depth knowledge and government buy-in are essential in Colombia for designing reform programs with substance. (ii) Staggering interventions by policy areas presented trade-offs between the breadth and depth of the program.

Nigeria: National Water Sector Reform Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the First Nigeria National Urban Sector Reform Project. The project development objectives (PDO) were to increase access to piped water networks in selected urban areas, and improve reliability and financial viability of selected urban water utilities, in Kaduna, Kano, and Ogun States (Development Credit Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the First Nigeria National Urban Sector Reform Project. The project development objectives (PDO) were to increase access to piped water networks in selected urban areas, and improve reliability and financial viability of selected urban water utilities, in Kaduna, Kano, and Ogun States (Development Credit Agreement dated September 2004). The overall development outcome is rated moderately unsatisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) In implementing reforms among multiple state and national stakeholders, necessary institutional restructuring and incentive mechanisms should be addressed upfront. (ii) In a federal system, greater and sustained engagement at State executive levels is needed to advance reforms. (iii) Incentives and accountability can help underpin performance improvements. (iv) Reliable and valid monitoring is crucial to improve utility performance and accountability to customers. (v) Prior analytical work helps to formulate a feasible mix of reform and infrastructure investment cycles.

Madagascar CLR Review FY07-13

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This Review covers both Madagascar’s Country Assistance Strategy (CAS, FY07-FY11) and Interim Strategy Note (ISN, FY12-FY13). While the CAS was a joint WBG document, the ISN was an IDA only document. The CAS implementation period was truncated due to the unconstitutional change in regime in early 2009 and the subsequent political crisis. Madagascar is a low-income country with a per capita Show MoreThis Review covers both Madagascar’s Country Assistance Strategy (CAS, FY07-FY11) and Interim Strategy Note (ISN, FY12-FY13). While the CAS was a joint WBG document, the ISN was an IDA only document. The CAS implementation period was truncated due to the unconstitutional change in regime in early 2009 and the subsequent political crisis. Madagascar is a low-income country with a per capita income of $440 and a population of 22.9 million in 2013. Between 2002 and 2008, the economy grew at an average of 5 percent per year. The country’s GDP contracted sharply by 4.0 percent in 2009. With the annual population growth of 2.8 percent, Madagascar experienced consecutive years of negative GDP growth rates per capita with -6.7% percent in 2009, followed by -2.5 percent in 2010, and -1.4 percent in 2011. Absolute poverty in the country measured by $2 PPP per capita per day, rose from an estimated 88.9 percent in 2001 to 92.7 percent of the population in 2005, then declined slightly, but stayed above the 90 percent mark through 2012. The Gini index for Madagascar was at 40. 6 in 2010 but increased to 42.7 in 2012. IEG rates the overall development outcome of the WBG program as Unsatisfactory.

Nepal: Second Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) reviews the World Bank’s Nepal Second Rural Water Supply and Sanitation (RWSS) Project, a follow-on to the First Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project, which closed in December 2003, at the government’s request. The first project’s overall outcome was rated satisfactory; the project had demonstrated that demand-driven and community-managed Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) reviews the World Bank’s Nepal Second Rural Water Supply and Sanitation (RWSS) Project, a follow-on to the First Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project, which closed in December 2003, at the government’s request. The first project’s overall outcome was rated satisfactory; the project had demonstrated that demand-driven and community-managed schemes are likely to be more sustainable than supply-driven schemes that are led by the government without extensive community participation. The development objectives of the second project, the subject of this PPAR, were to (i) improve the institutional performance of the rural water supply and sanitation sector and mainstream the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Fund Development Board (Fund Board) approach in the government’s system, and (ii) support communities to form inclusive local water supply and sanitation user groups that could plan, implement, and operate drinking water and sanitation infrastructure to deliver sustainable health, hygiene, and productivity benefits to rural households. Project ratings were as follows: outcome was moderately satisfactory, risk to development outcome was significant, World Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Major lessons from the project include: (i) Mainstreaming a community-led approach in a supply-driven government structure is difficult to implement in the absence of a prior agreement with government and continuous advocacy. (ii) Project implementation arrangements that are not linked to institutions that have a legal mandate and parallel institutional structures undermine the sustainability of the project. (iii) Given that women are main stakeholders, placing them at the center of planning and implementation of a community-led rural water supply and sanitation project supports sustainable benefits. (iv) When project sustainability rests on community contribution to the operations and maintenance (O&M) costs, there is a need to prepare and agree on an explicit O&M plan with the community at the project’s development phase. (v) In rural water supply programs aimed at increasing water supply at the village level, it is necessary to make provisions to cater to demand for higher service levels for wastewater management and water quality monitoring.

Panama: Improving Basic Health, Equity, and Opportunities among Indigenous and Poor Rural Communities (PPAR)

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This report assesses the performance of two projects: (i) the Social Protection—Support to the Red de Oportunidades (Social Protection) (P098328) project and (ii) the Health Equity and Performance Improvement (HEPI) (P106445) project. The Social Protection and HEPI projects were approved by the World Bank Board of Directors in July 2007 and in August 2008, respectively. The two projects were Show MoreThis report assesses the performance of two projects: (i) the Social Protection—Support to the Red de Oportunidades (Social Protection) (P098328) project and (ii) the Health Equity and Performance Improvement (HEPI) (P106445) project. The Social Protection and HEPI projects were approved by the World Bank Board of Directors in July 2007 and in August 2008, respectively. The two projects were prepared during the administration of President Martín Torrijos (in office September 1, 2004–July 1, 2009) and implemented during the administration of President Ricardo Martinelli (in office July 1, 2009–July 1, 2014). The Social Protection project was completed in September 2014 and the HEPI project a few months later, in December. The two projects presented a clear vision of supporting human capital and improving maternal and child health outcomes through a joint strategy of incentivizing the use of basic health services through the conditional cash transfer (CCT) program, Red de Oportunidades (RO), and of extending the coverage to indigenous and rural communities (Estrategia de Extensión de Cobertura—EEC) through mobile health teams. The two projects also shared similar interventions and activities: (i) both projects financed the EEC, (ii) both projects envisaged the implementation of impact evaluations, and (iii) both projects aimed at improving the government’s capacity to design, implement, and monitor coherent and efficient sector policies. The project’s outcome rating is Moderately Satisfactory.