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Topic:Environment and Natural Resources
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The Future of Carbon Markets for Climate Change Mitigation

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The Future of Carbon Markets for Climate Change Mitigation
Join us for a discussion about the future of carbon markets and carbon pricing solutions for global greenhouse gas emission reduction.Join us for a discussion about the future of carbon markets and carbon pricing solutions for global greenhouse gas emission reduction.

Paraguay CLR Review FY15-18

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Paraguay - Completion and Learning Review for the Period FY15-FY18 : IEG Review (English) Paraguay is an upper middle-income country with a population of 6.8 million (2017) and a GNI per capita (Atlas method) of USD 3,920 in 2017.The population is very young (60 percent under thirty years old) and the country is going through a rapid urbanization process from a low base. The country has over Show MoreParaguay - Completion and Learning Review for the Period FY15-FY18 : IEG Review (English) Paraguay is an upper middle-income country with a population of 6.8 million (2017) and a GNI per capita (Atlas method) of USD 3,920 in 2017.The population is very young (60 percent under thirty years old) and the country is going through a rapid urbanization process from a low base. The country has over the last 15 years achieved solid economic growth (average GDP growth of 4.7 percent per annum) and improved shared prosperity, spurred by abundant natural resources. The CPS for the World Bank Group (WBG) had three pillars (or focus areas): (i) resilience to risks and volatility; (ii) pro-poor delivery of public goods and services; and (iii) agricultural productivity and market integration. The Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) focus areas and objectives were broadly aligned with the government's National Development Plan (NDP) 2014-2030 and supported the NDP's higher level objective to reduce extreme poverty and foster income growth of the bottom 40 percent. The WBG's program components were well aligned with the NDP and addressed important development issues. The program was selective with three focus areas and eight objectives (some of which, however, contained multiple sub-objectives). The Bank demonstrated flexibility by shifting to knowledge services when the demand for IBRD lending dropped in the run-up to the election. However, the results framework had significant shortcomings which were not fully addressed at the PLR stage. The Completion and Learning Review (CLR) highlighted six lessons with which IEG concurs: (i) simplicity in project design helps speed up project implementation; (ii) investment projects may help to build governance and capacity; (iii) a realistic results framework is needed for timely achievement of objectives; (iv) a strong ASA program requires selectivity and government ownership; (v) RASs may help prioritize ASA demand and advance reforms during Paraguay's long project preparation cycles; and (vi) the flexibility afforded by programmatic ASA helps respond to changes in client needs.

The Philippines Country Program Evaluation (Approach Paper)

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This Country Program Evaluation (CPE) aims to assess the development effectiveness of the World Bank Group (WBG) program in the Philippines between FY10‐18. It will assess the WBG’s contributions to the country’s development in each of the WBG group priority areas of engagement as defined in the 2010‐2012 Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) and the 2014‐2019 Country Partnership Strategy (CPS). At Show MoreThis Country Program Evaluation (CPE) aims to assess the development effectiveness of the World Bank Group (WBG) program in the Philippines between FY10‐18. It will assess the WBG’s contributions to the country’s development in each of the WBG group priority areas of engagement as defined in the 2010‐2012 Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) and the 2014‐2019 Country Partnership Strategy (CPS). At the same time, it will look into the extent to which the WBG took advantage of potential synergies between the financial, knowledge and convening services that the WBG institutions offered across its various engagement areas, as well as the factors that could have limited or constrained the scale of the WBG engagement in the country.

Rwanda: Urban Infrastructure and City Management Project (UICMP) (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report reviews the Rwanda Urban Infrastructure and City Management Project (UICMP). The project was approved on November 10, 2005 and became effective on June 2, 2006. The project’s original closing date of March 31, 2009, was extended by nine months to December 31, 2009. The project was financed by an International Development Association (IDA) grant ($20 Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report reviews the Rwanda Urban Infrastructure and City Management Project (UICMP). The project was approved on November 10, 2005 and became effective on June 2, 2006. The project’s original closing date of March 31, 2009, was extended by nine months to December 31, 2009. The project was financed by an International Development Association (IDA) grant ($20 million) and a Professional Human Resource Development grant ($0.46 million), and contributions from the government of Rwanda ($2.6 million). The Nordic Development Fund provided parallel financing ($6.4 million). The project development objective (PDO) was to increase access to urban infrastructure and services in the primary city of Kigali and the two secondary cities of Butare and Ruhengeri through physical investment and upgrading and improved management tools. Ratings for this project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Main lessons from this operation are as follows: (i) The World Bank’s absence in a sector creates knowledge and implementation gaps for both World Bank and client, requiring significant catch-up transaction costs. (ii) Using a delegated management agency to address the weak implementation capacity of local governments requires a focus on building such capacity and a clear exit strategy to ensure long-term sustainability. (iii) To maximize learning from pilot project components, their lessons should be documented and disseminated to inform the future work of the World Bank and government.

Peru: Sierra Rural Development Project (PPAR)

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This is the Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) for the Peru Sierra Rural Development Project (P079165). The assessment will contribute to learning from projects that seek to increase the integration of small-scale producers with market value chains. The loan agreement stated that the project development objective was to assist the Borrower in improving the assets and economic conditions Show MoreThis is the Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) for the Peru Sierra Rural Development Project (P079165). The assessment will contribute to learning from projects that seek to increase the integration of small-scale producers with market value chains. The loan agreement stated that the project development objective was to assist the Borrower in improving the assets and economic conditions of rural families in selected areas of the Borrower’s Apurímac, Ayacucho, Huancavelica, Junín, Huánuco, and Pasco regions, and strengthen government capacity to implement an integrated Sierra development strategy. Ratings for the Sierra Rural Development Project are as follows: Outcomes was satisfactory, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Quality of monitoring and evaluation was substantial. Four lessons from the experience of this assessment include: (i) Subproject investments by producer groups are more likely to be viable when the selection of subprojects is competitive and demand-driven, and it entails a substantial producer contribution to subproject cost. (ii) Building partnerships between actors in the market value chain is difficult and, in some circumstances, may not be feasible in the short term. (iii) Subproject investments by producer groups give a one-off boost to poor producer households without necessarily ensuring that they will continue to grow, or that the groups to which they belong will become stronger. (iv) Ensuring complementarity between subproject investments by producer groups and government-financed infrastructure and services, although hard to achieve, is important for maximizing impact.

Bhutan: Strengthening Regional Cooperation for Wildlife Protection in Asia: Phase II of the Adaptable Program Loan (PPAR)

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South Asia is home to 13–15 percent of the Earth’s floral and faunal biodiversity, including some of its most iconic and endangered wildlife species, such as tigers, snow leopards, one-horn rhinoceroses, elephants, pangolins, and brown bears, all of which are on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature’s Red List of Threatened Species (2017). Among the South Asian countries, Bhutan Show MoreSouth Asia is home to 13–15 percent of the Earth’s floral and faunal biodiversity, including some of its most iconic and endangered wildlife species, such as tigers, snow leopards, one-horn rhinoceroses, elephants, pangolins, and brown bears, all of which are on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature’s Red List of Threatened Species (2017). Among the South Asian countries, Bhutan has a high density and an extraordinary range of species (more than 5,000 vascular plants, 600 birds, and nearly 200 mammals). This biodiversity is extremely important to the patrimony of Bhutan and to the economy and well-being of its people. At project appraisal in 2011, the South Asian region was facing several threats to its wildlife, including rapid loss of critical natural habitats, increasing poaching of wildlife, and expanding illegal trade in wildlife and wildlife products driven largely by consumer demand in East Asia. The project’s objective was “to assist the Recipient in building and/or enhancing shared capacity, institutions, knowledge, and incentives to tackle illegal wildlife trade and other selected regional conservation threats to habitats in border areas. Ratings for the project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development was moderate, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. IEG’s review of the project’s experience suggests the following lessons: (i) Robust upstream work that builds strong and sustained commitment by all governments participating in a regional approach to wildlife protection is a necessary condition for success. (ii) Projects involving multicountry collaboration on global public goods are challenging to design and implement, making the provision of adequate preparation time critical for conducting necessary analyses of participating country commitments and capacities. (iii) Projects piloting new approaches to multicountry collaboration on transboundary wildlife management present challenges that require a carefully designed results framework to measure and track progress in achieving project objectives. (iv) Projects designed to build national institutions and capacity for multicountry collaboration on transboundary wildlife management require a long-term investment to ensure successful outcomes.

Carbon Markets for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in a Warming World

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Carbon Markets for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in a Warming World
This evaluation assesses the role and contributions of the World Bank Group in Carbon Finance (CF) in relation to the needs and priorities of its client countries, its potential comparative advantages, and draws lessons to inform the Bank Group's future strategic direction in CF.This evaluation assesses the role and contributions of the World Bank Group in Carbon Finance (CF) in relation to the needs and priorities of its client countries, its potential comparative advantages, and draws lessons to inform the Bank Group's future strategic direction in CF.

China: ShiZheng Railway Project (PPAR)

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Railways are vital to China’s social and economic development. As a large economy with a vast geographical area and a huge population, China has massive volumes of passenger and freight traffic moving over medium to long distances. Because of the high demand for rail services, railways are one of the most economic and effective means of transport for the medium- to long-distance transport market Show MoreRailways are vital to China’s social and economic development. As a large economy with a vast geographical area and a huge population, China has massive volumes of passenger and freight traffic moving over medium to long distances. Because of the high demand for rail services, railways are one of the most economic and effective means of transport for the medium- to long-distance transport market in China. They are also more energy-efficient and environment-friendly than other transport modes on a comparable capacity basis. The World Bank initiated a programmatic engagement with China’s railways in 2008 through a program of six projects to support construction of priority high-speed railway (HSR) lines. The program was also intended to be a platform for the World Bank to continue its policy dialogue with the government on railway sector reform. The ShiZheng Railway Project was the first of the six projects. The project’s original objectives were to meet the growing freight and passenger market demand in the railway corridor section between Shijiazhuang and Zhengzhou while substantially improving the level of service offered to customers. After the restructuring in 2012, a new objective was added – to improve the maintenance of the catenary system on high-speed rail lines – but the original objectives were unchanged. Ratings from the project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was negligible, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. The following lessons are drawn from the project experience: (i) Sound technical design, project preparation, and implementation management, combined with assured financial resources and effective interinstitutional collaboration, are a recipe for success for a complex HSR project. (ii) Effective high speed railway systems require certain preconditions. (iii) Successful reforms in large and complex infrastructure sectors such as railways involve sustained policy changes supported through long-term policy dialogue and engagements. (iv) Agglomeration effects are an important benefit of high-speed rail development and could be incorporated in the cost-benefit analysis of such projects. (v) Good connections of HSR lines with other transport modes and between the rail stations and urban centers are critical to achieving the full benefits of high-speed trains.

An Independent Evaluation of the World Bank Group’s Support to Mexico (2008–17)

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An Independent Evaluation of the World Bank Group’s Support to Mexico
This evaluation assesses the development effectiveness of the World Bank Group’s country program in Mexico between 2008 and 2017.This evaluation assesses the development effectiveness of the World Bank Group’s country program in Mexico between 2008 and 2017.

Conversations: What More Can the World Bank Group Do to Support Environmental Sustainability?

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What More Can the World Bank Group Do to Support Environmental Sustainability
Excerpts from a panel discussion about the how the Bank Group has mainstreamed and measured projects with potential environmental benefits.Excerpts from a panel discussion about the how the Bank Group has mainstreamed and measured projects with potential environmental benefits.