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Topic:Energy and Extractives
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IEG Work Program and Budget (FY20) and Indicative Plan (FY21-22)

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To maximize its relevance and value added for the World Bank Group (WBG), IEG will align its work program with WBG strategic priorities. IEG also aims to maintain a clear line of sight with the WBG mission and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as well as with commitments made in the IBRD and IFC Capital Packages and in the context of IDA replenishments. Furthermore, IEG will keep an Show MoreTo maximize its relevance and value added for the World Bank Group (WBG), IEG will align its work program with WBG strategic priorities. IEG also aims to maintain a clear line of sight with the WBG mission and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as well as with commitments made in the IBRD and IFC Capital Packages and in the context of IDA replenishments. Furthermore, IEG will keep an increased focus on outcomes, countries, clients, and beneficiaries in its work, and aim to foster a greater outcome orientation throughout the WBG. To achieve this strategic vision, IEG will focus its work program on the key development effectiveness questions that the institution and its clients are most concerned about. For each of these questions, we will strive to answer “why”, “how, “where”, “when”, and “for whom” specific interventions or programs have achieved results or not. By working more closely with operational units and other evaluation initiatives across the WBG, we will seek to significantly enhance IEG’s value added for the Board and WBG management. The work program will be anchored around a series of “streams”, building evidence over time on connected themes and trying to bridge between project, country, sector and strategic impact: Fragility, Conflict and Violence (FCV), Gender, Maximizing Finance for Development, Human Capital, Climate Change, Growth and Transformation. In addition, IEG will work along an ‘effectiveness’ cross-cutting stream, aimed at examining systemic issues in WBG effectiveness, as well as working towards building a stronger outcome focus for WBG operations and strategies.

Mobilizing Disruptive and Transformative Technologies for Development An Assessment of the World Bank Group’s Readiness (Approach Paper)

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The world is experiencing a technological revolution with far reaching implications for developing and developed countries. Technological disruption is not new, but the speed at which new technologies are emerging is unprecedented, and so is their diffusion across the global economy. Disruptive technologies can transform development – in both positive and negative ways – and result in new Show MoreThe world is experiencing a technological revolution with far reaching implications for developing and developed countries. Technological disruption is not new, but the speed at which new technologies are emerging is unprecedented, and so is their diffusion across the global economy. Disruptive technologies can transform development – in both positive and negative ways – and result in new paradigms for poverty reduction and boosting shared prosperity. Recognizing these positive and negative implications, and with a sense of urgency to position itself to help client countries mobilize disruptive technologies for their development, the Bank Group has adopted a new approach. This evaluation has a two‐fold purpose: first, to assess the Bank Group’s readiness in helping clients harness the opportunities and mitigate the risks posed by disruptive technologies; and second, to inform the implementation of the Bank Group’s new approach to disruptive technologies and its efforts to become a partner of choice in mobilizing disruptive technologies.

Papua New Guinea CLR Review FY13-18

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This review covers the period of the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS), FY13-FY16, and updated in the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) dated July 1, 2016. At the PLR stage, the CPS period was extended by two years. Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a lower middle-income country with a Gross National Income (GNI) per capita of $2,340 in 2017. Oil and gas extraction has been the main driver of Show MoreThis review covers the period of the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS), FY13-FY16, and updated in the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) dated July 1, 2016. At the PLR stage, the CPS period was extended by two years. Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a lower middle-income country with a Gross National Income (GNI) per capita of $2,340 in 2017. Oil and gas extraction has been the main driver of economic growth. During the CPS period, GDP growth varied considerably, from 0.3 percent in 2018 to 15 percent in 2014, due to volatility in commodity prices and disruption in the operations of three major mining and petroleum projects from a 7.5 magnitude earthquake in 2018. The country’s Human Development Index increased from 0.52 percent in 2010 to 0.544 in 2017, ranking 153rd among 189 countries in 2017. PNG rejoined the WBG’s Harmonized List of Fragile and conflict affected situation Countries (FCS) in FY17 and FY18. This list had excluded PNG since 2011. The World Bank Group’s (WBG) CPS had three pillars (or focus areas): (i) increased and more gender-equitable access to inclusive physical and financial infrastructure, (ii) gender equitable improvements in lives and livelihoods, and (iii) increasingly prudent management of revenues and benefits. IEG rated the CPS development outcome as moderately unsatisfactory, and the WBG performance as fair. The CLR provides three lessons: First, portfolio improvements require sustained engagement by all project teams, implementing agencies, and the Government, as well as stronger interagency coordination. Second, PNG’s institutional and social fragility places a premium on understanding political economy factors with a bearing on projects, and on monitoring and ensuring awareness of grievance redress mechanisms. Third, partnerships can help expand ASA, increase the WBG’s impact, and test new ideas.

Croatia CLR Review FY14-17

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This review of the Croatia's Completion and Learning Review (CLR) of the World Bank Group's (WBG) Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) covers the CPS period, FY14-FY17, and the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) of 2016.The World Bank Group program had three focus areas: (i) promoting fiscal consolidation, (ii) improving competitiveness to spur growth, and (iii) maximizing the benefits of EU Show MoreThis review of the Croatia's Completion and Learning Review (CLR) of the World Bank Group's (WBG) Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) covers the CPS period, FY14-FY17, and the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) of 2016.The World Bank Group program had three focus areas: (i) promoting fiscal consolidation, (ii) improving competitiveness to spur growth, and (iii) maximizing the benefits of EU membership. These were broadly congruent with the government's 2013 Economic Program, which covered fiscal consolidation with a particular focus on pension reform and rationalizing hospitals; growth and competitiveness through a sustainable development strategy based on the knowledge economy; and absorption of EU funds available to Croatia. The CPS addressed key challenges facing the country, including EU accession, and was congruent with the Government's 2013 Economic Program and aligned with the WBG's twin goals. The analytical work undertaken by the World Bank contributed to the 2018 Systematic Country Diagnostic Study (SCD), and addressed fiscal issues as well as issues in the justice system, energy, and smart specialization. Portfolio performance was comparable with the ECA region and the World Bank, but some interventions were affected by changes in government priorities.

North Macedonia CLR Review FY15-18

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The Republic of North Macedonia (North Macedonia) is an upper middle-income country which is small and land-locked. The World Bank Group's (WBG) Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) had two pillars (or focus areas): (i) growth and competitiveness, and (ii) skills and inclusion. The CPS was broadly aligned with the government's 2014-2018 program, which sought increased growth and employment, Show MoreThe Republic of North Macedonia (North Macedonia) is an upper middle-income country which is small and land-locked. The World Bank Group's (WBG) Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) had two pillars (or focus areas): (i) growth and competitiveness, and (ii) skills and inclusion. The CPS was broadly aligned with the government's 2014-2018 program, which sought increased growth and employment, international integration, reduced corruption and more efficient law enforcement, better inter-ethnic relations, and investments in education, innovation and technology. Specifically, the CPS supported the growth and employment, infrastructure, social protection, and education pillars of the Government's program and the government's efforts to stabilize public debt. The European Union (EU) accession agenda was a cross-cutting theme in the CPS. At the PLR stage, the CPS maintained its overall focus, albeit with some changes in emphasis, and was aligned with the new Government program (2017-20) that focused on growth, jobs, and social protection, among other areas.

Armenia: Energy Efficiency Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the development effectiveness of the Energy Efficiency Project in Armenia. The project was selected for a PPAR to learn from an innovative pilot project that influenced the design and experience of other energy efficiency projects and interventions. Energy efficiency is of strategic importance for the World Bank given its role in Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the development effectiveness of the Energy Efficiency Project in Armenia. The project was selected for a PPAR to learn from an innovative pilot project that influenced the design and experience of other energy efficiency projects and interventions. Energy efficiency is of strategic importance for the World Bank given its role in supporting climate change mitigation, which is a major corporate priority. The project development objective was to reduce energy consumption of social and other public facilities in Armenia and decrease greenhouse gas emissions through the removal of barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency investments in the public sector. The project was financed through a Global Environment Facility (GEF) grant and government funds totaling $10.7 million. The project was implemented in 2012–16. Ratings from the Energy Efficiency Project were as follows: Outcomes was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was substantial, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) Energy efficiency revolving funds can be market enablers by partnering with commercial and financial institutions, but there are few prospects for scale up and energy efficiency market transformation without the commitment of private businesses. (ii) Practical demonstration of the technical and financial feasibility of an innovative energy efficiency transaction program can only influence positive systemic change in the legal and regulatory framework if there is government commitment to the approach and long‐term funding. (iii) Appropriate legislation and regulation can provide incentives to undertake energy efficiency measures, but they are not sufficient without a strong government energy efficiency agency in place that is responsible for monitoring and enforcement. (iv) The design of a pilot project needs to go beyond demonstration effects and lay the foundation for sustainable operations over time.

Mozambique: Southern Africa Regional Gas Project (PPAR)

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When the Southern Africa Regional Gas Project (SARGP) was approved in November 2003, Mozambique had seen strong economic growth since the end of the civil war in 1992 but faced challenges in improving its business environment and attracting foreign investment. Although Mozambique’s gas reserves had been discovered in the 1960s, they remained undeveloped. The World Bank had provided advice and Show MoreWhen the Southern Africa Regional Gas Project (SARGP) was approved in November 2003, Mozambique had seen strong economic growth since the end of the civil war in 1992 but faced challenges in improving its business environment and attracting foreign investment. Although Mozambique’s gas reserves had been discovered in the 1960s, they remained undeveloped. The World Bank had provided advice and technical assistance to help develop the gas fields since 1991. In 2000, the government signed an agreement with the South African petrochemical company, Sasol, under which Sasol would develop the gas reserves in Mozambique and export natural gas to South Africa over a 25-year period. The stated objective of the SARGP was to help: “initiate the development and export of Mozambique’s substantial natural gas resources in an environmentally sustainable manner, thereby contributing towards economic growth and poverty reduction in Mozambique.” The project ratings are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was negligible to low, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from this experience include: (i) The PRG instrument can provide distinct risk mitigation to support a first-of-kind public-private partnership project in an untested policy and regulatory environment. (ii) Even as a late entrant into a project’s financing structure, the Bank Group can leverage its presence to enhance E&S safeguards and community development initiatives. (iii) Some flexibility in concession agreements to review price mechanism clauses in the event of extreme divergence from initial assumptions can help enhance long-term viability of a public-private partnership project. (iv) Coordination of corporate local community development initiatives with local government programs can help enhance their sustainability. (v) Proactive measures by the sponsor company to develop local suppliers are likely to be needed to ensure upstream linkages in extractive industry projects.

Carbon Markets for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in a Warming World

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Carbon Markets for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in a Warming World
This evaluation assesses the role and contributions of the World Bank Group in Carbon Finance (CF) in relation to the needs and priorities of its client countries, its potential comparative advantages, and draws lessons to inform the Bank Group's future strategic direction in CF.This evaluation assesses the role and contributions of the World Bank Group in Carbon Finance (CF) in relation to the needs and priorities of its client countries, its potential comparative advantages, and draws lessons to inform the Bank Group's future strategic direction in CF.

Liberia CLR Review FY13-17

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Liberia is a low-income country with a GNI per capita (Atlas method) of 380 US dollars in 2017. After a period of conflict and instability, Liberia's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew at an average annual rate of 6.2 percent during 2003-2013. The ebola virus disease (EVD) crisis of 2014-2016 and a drop in global commodity prices resulted in slower average annual GDP growth of 2.1 percent with per Show MoreLiberia is a low-income country with a GNI per capita (Atlas method) of 380 US dollars in 2017. After a period of conflict and instability, Liberia's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew at an average annual rate of 6.2 percent during 2003-2013. The ebola virus disease (EVD) crisis of 2014-2016 and a drop in global commodity prices resulted in slower average annual GDP growth of 2.1 percent with per capita annual GDP growth at -0.4 percent during 2013-2017. As a post conflict country aiming to achieve sustained broad-based growth, Liberia faces several development challenges: large infrastructure gaps, poor education and health indicators, a large youth cohort, lack of economic diversification, and weak public institutions. The World Bank Group's country partnership strategy had three pillars: (i) economic transformation; (ii) human development; and (iii) governance and public sector institutions. In addition, the CPS had two cross-cutting themes of capacity development and gender equality. The CPS focus areas and objectives were well aligned with the government's agenda for transformation with a strong focus on infrastructure. The CLR provided a succinct assessment of the achievement of program objectives. It identified the increases in IDA lending attributable to the EVD outbreak. The CLR review agrees with the CLR lessons: (i) ensure government's strong commitment to the CPF program through close alignment with the country's development plans; (ii) adapt and apply a sound post-conflict and fragile country lens in the design of CPF programs for post conflict countries; (iii) keep an eye on medium-term goals even in the face of a crisis such as EVD; (iv) being selective about cross-cutting themes and including outcomes associated with these themes helps maintain the Government's and Country Team's focus on them throughout implementation. IEG provides the following additional lessons: (i) flexibility of the CPS program enabled the WBG to respond to the EVD crisis in a timely manner; and (ii) trust fund activities need to have a well-articulated strategic focus and explicit selectivity filters to ensure that they contribute to the achievement of CPS objectives.

Kyrgyz Republic CLR Review FY14-17

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The Kyrgyz Republic is a lower middle-income country with a GNI per capita of $1,100 in 2016. It is a country with a land-locked and mountainous geography, and rich in mineral and water resources. GDP growth averaged 3.7 percent during the CPS period (2014-17), somewhat below the average during the previous four years (4.0 percent). Gold production and worker remittances have been significant Show MoreThe Kyrgyz Republic is a lower middle-income country with a GNI per capita of $1,100 in 2016. It is a country with a land-locked and mountainous geography, and rich in mineral and water resources. GDP growth averaged 3.7 percent during the CPS period (2014-17), somewhat below the average during the previous four years (4.0 percent). Gold production and worker remittances have been significant drivers of growth, but are subject to volatility and do not lend themselves to sustained growth. Growth helped reduce poverty rates, from the recent peak of 38.0 percent in 2012 to 25.4 percent in 2015. Nevertheless, the country’s Human Development Index improved slightly from 0.656 in 2013 (ranked 125nd among 187 countries) to 0.664 in 2015 (ranked 120th among 188 countries). Inequality (the GINI Index) declined from 28.8 in 2013 to 26.8 in 2016, Policy effectiveness has been undermined by high levels of corruption and frequent changes in Government. Kyrgyz’s rank in Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index deteriorated from 123rd of 167 in 2015 to 135th of 167 in 2017. During the CPS period, there were five different prime ministers. The World Bank Group’s (WBG) CPS had three pillars (or focus areas): (i) public administration and public service delivery, (ii) business environment and investment climate, and (iii) natural resources and physical infrastructure. The CPS was aligned with the Government’s National Sustainable Development Strategy (NSDS), 2013-2017, specifically with NSDS objectives on public administration, judiciary, social services, financial and private sector development, agribusiness, exports, environmental protection/resource management, energy, transport, and urban development. These objectives were part of the NSDS broad focus on governance, state building, and economic development. WBG’s support was also aligned with a number of specific government programs (e.g., the Governance and Anti-Corruption Plan adopted in 2012).