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Topic:Climate Change
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Carbon Markets for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in a Warming World

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Carbon Markets for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in a Warming World
This evaluation assesses the role and contributions of the World Bank Group in Carbon Finance (CF) in relation to the needs and priorities of its client countries, its potential comparative advantages, and draws lessons to inform the Bank Group's future strategic direction in CF.This evaluation assesses the role and contributions of the World Bank Group in Carbon Finance (CF) in relation to the needs and priorities of its client countries, its potential comparative advantages, and draws lessons to inform the Bank Group's future strategic direction in CF.

Conversations: What More Can the World Bank Group Do to Support Environmental Sustainability?

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What More Can the World Bank Group Do to Support Environmental Sustainability
Excerpts from a panel discussion about the how the Bank Group has mainstreamed and measured projects with potential environmental benefits.Excerpts from a panel discussion about the how the Bank Group has mainstreamed and measured projects with potential environmental benefits.

How is the World Bank Group Supporting Environmental Sustainability?

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How is the World Bank Group Supporting Environmental Sustainability?
A discussion and debate about what more the World Bank Group needs to do to ensure environmental sustainability.A discussion and debate about what more the World Bank Group needs to do to ensure environmental sustainability.

Turkey: Istanbul Seismic Risk Mitigation and Emergency Preparedness Project (PPAR) (Turkish version)

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This version of the PPAR report has been translated to Turkish. Turkey faces high vulnerability to earthquakes, with Istanbul posing the most serious risk due its high seismic risk and its role as the population and economic center of Turkey. A major earthquake near Istanbul in 1999 led to over 17,000 deaths and damage estimated at $US 5-13 billion. The World Bank supported a post-earthquake Show MoreThis version of the PPAR report has been translated to Turkish. Turkey faces high vulnerability to earthquakes, with Istanbul posing the most serious risk due its high seismic risk and its role as the population and economic center of Turkey. A major earthquake near Istanbul in 1999 led to over 17,000 deaths and damage estimated at $US 5-13 billion. The World Bank supported a post-earthquake reconstruction project over 1999-2006, but vulnerability to earthquakes remained high, especially for Istanbul. A major earthquake in Istanbul would be catastrophic, and could derail the country’s development trajectory. The government was committed to undertaking disaster risk mitigation, but needed external assistance and support to do so. The World Bank was a suitable partner based on its financing capacity, technical expertise in disaster risk management and mitigation, and credibility and trust in Turkey based on prior disaster risk management engagements. These considerations motivated the creation of the Istanbul Seismic Risk Mitigation and Emergency Preparedness Project (ISMEP) as a proactive risk mitigation effort. Ratings for the Istanbul Seismic Risk Mitigation and Emergency Preparedness Project are as follows: Outcome is highly satisfactory, Risk to development outcome is negligible, Bank performance is satisfactory, and Borrower performance is highly satisfactory. The project offers the following lessons: (i) A sub-national multisector model can be highly effective for reducing disaster risk in a well-functioning major metropolitan area, even in a country where these approaches are unusual. (ii) A semi-autonomous professional project coordination unit can help to ensure effective and efficient project implementation even when dealing with many stakeholders and beneficiary agencies. (iii) Even highly successful project models may not be replicated if they cannot generate strong government ownership and if they rely on exceptional measures. (iv) The World Bank can achieve large scale impact by creating effective project platforms that are able to attract additional financing from other institutions. (v) The World Bank can offer significant value to clients from financing, access to technology, project management experience, and influence - even in megacities in high capacity upper middle-income countries. (vi) Pilot efforts may not support learning if they do not have monitoring and evaluation systems that assess their contribution to program objectives and draw conclusions for the design of future interventions. (vii) Small grants to support municipalities in digitizing their processes can have a significant impact on efficiency and transparency if coupled with highly motivated municipal leadership.

Are World Bank Group Projects Getting Cleaner, Greener, and More Resilient?

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Are World Bank Group Projects Getting Cleaner
Highlights from the 2017 Results and Performance of the World Bank GroupHighlights from the 2017 Results and Performance of the World Bank Group

Local and Regional Pollution Reduction Co-Benefits from Climate Change Mitigation Interventions: A Literature Review

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IEG’s evaluation on pollution and the World Bank Group commissioned a review of the empirical literature on pollution co-benefits from climate change mitigation interventions, emphasizing air pollution benefits. Such pollution is defined using parameters such as sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matter for air emissions, and total suspended solids for water releases. The Show MoreIEG’s evaluation on pollution and the World Bank Group commissioned a review of the empirical literature on pollution co-benefits from climate change mitigation interventions, emphasizing air pollution benefits. Such pollution is defined using parameters such as sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matter for air emissions, and total suspended solids for water releases. The review used a multistage identification technique based on 40 keyword strings in Google Scholar, web of science, and Scopus to identify a universe of peer-reviewed articles. Papers were included only if they focused on developing countries. Additional papers were identified iteratively based on references from the initial papers. The final papers cited were based on expert judgment, with emphasis for studies published after 2010. A systematic search was conducted to locate relevant review articles and meta-analyses; no formal systematic reviews were found. Google was also used to identify non-peer-reviewed studies from reputable sources, such as the International Energy Agency, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and World Bank. The paper lays out the methods and models used in calculating pollution co-benefits, and then presents sector-by-sector results for energy, buildings, industry, transportation, solid and liquid waste management, agriculture, forests/other land use, and multiple sector studies.

Bulgaria: District Heating Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) prepared by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) evaluates the development effectiveness and sustainability of results of the World Bank–financed District Heating Project in Bulgaria (2003–08). The project development objectives were to improve the quality of district heating services in the capital city of Sofia (1.6 million people) and an Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) prepared by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) evaluates the development effectiveness and sustainability of results of the World Bank–financed District Heating Project in Bulgaria (2003–08). The project development objectives were to improve the quality of district heating services in the capital city of Sofia (1.6 million people) and an adjacent town of Pernik (86,200 people), improve financial viability of the Sofia and Pernik district heating companies, and increase environmentally friendly operations in the district heating sector, through energy conservation and pollution reduction mechanisms. The project also extended funds from the World Bank–administered Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) for the purchase of carbon emission reductions resulting from the project activities. Ratings for District Heating Project were as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was substantial, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. IEG’s review of this project’s experience in Bulgaria suggests the following lessons: (i) Postponing an energy efficiency project until the necessary legal measures addressing demand-side management are implemented can lead to better outcomes. (ii) Sustainability of benefits from infrastructure investments can be put at risk if future investment needs are unmet. (iii) Investments in energy efficiency infrastructure alone are not enough to achieve sustained financial viability. (iv) Efforts to encourage private sector participation may fail when there is no strong agreement from key stakeholders in the context of a complex and changing governance structure. (v) Carbon finance operation or results-based financing can have strong demonstration effects.

Toward a Clean World for All: An Evaluation of the World Bank Group’s Support to Pollution Management

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Toward a Clean World for All
IEG’s first comprehensive assessment of pollution management efforts examines the extent to which the World Bank Group has been relevant, effective, and efficient in addressing pollution concerns in client countries.IEG’s first comprehensive assessment of pollution management efforts examines the extent to which the World Bank Group has been relevant, effective, and efficient in addressing pollution concerns in client countries.

Press Release: A Call to Action – New report urges World Bank Group to prioritize pollution and underscores need for improved pollution monitoring in developing countries

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need for improved pollution monitoring in developing countries
New IEG report calls on countries to direct more resources towards addressing pollution.New IEG report calls on countries to direct more resources towards addressing pollution.

Infographic: Pollution - the Challenge and the Path Forward

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Infographic: Pollution - the Challenge and the Path Forward
Excerpts from IEG's evaluation Toward a Clean World for All: An Evaluation of the World Bank Group’s Support to Pollution Management. Excerpts from IEG's evaluation Toward a Clean World for All: An Evaluation of the World Bank Group’s Support to Pollution Management.