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World Bank Support for Irrigation Service Delivery: Responding to New Challenges and Opportunities

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World Bank Support for Irrigation Service Delivery: Responding to New Challenges and Opportunities
This evaluation seeks to inform the World Bank’s efforts to support client countries to deliver sustainable irrigation and drainage services and achieve development impacts.This evaluation seeks to inform the World Bank’s efforts to support client countries to deliver sustainable irrigation and drainage services and achieve development impacts.

The Key to Making Cities More Resilient? Accountability.

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The Key to Making Cities More Resilient? Accountability.
Governments and lending institutions must learn to identify—and track the progress of—interventions that build resilience in urban areas.Governments and lending institutions must learn to identify—and track the progress of—interventions that build resilience in urban areas.

Vietnam: Water Resources Assistance Project (PPAR)

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When the Vietnam Water Resources Assistance Project (VWRAP) was designed, Vietnam was the world’s second largest rice exporter, but land and labor productivity was relatively low in comparison with neighboring countries. About half of cultivated land was irrigated. Ninety-six percent of the nation’s 7,600 dams were used for irrigation, but the hydraulic infrastructure was deteriorating, and dam Show MoreWhen the Vietnam Water Resources Assistance Project (VWRAP) was designed, Vietnam was the world’s second largest rice exporter, but land and labor productivity was relatively low in comparison with neighboring countries. About half of cultivated land was irrigated. Ninety-six percent of the nation’s 7,600 dams were used for irrigation, but the hydraulic infrastructure was deteriorating, and dam safety monitoring was considered inadequate. A major constraint to improving agricultural productivity was underperformance of the large rice-based flood irrigation systems, because of their outdated infrastructure and institutional design. The government of Vietnam had initiated a broad-based program to modernize agriculture and requested World Bank assistance to finance a project that would introduce innovative approaches to irrigation modernization and address dam safety issues. The project development objectives were to modernize and increase the productivity of Vietnamese agriculture, improve the management of water resources, and reduce dam safety risks.  Ratings for this project are as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) The Project’s close alignment with the government of Socialist Republic of Vietnam’s agriculture reform programs allowed it to pilot innovations that have had enduring policy impacts. (ii) Irrigation modernization is a complex learning process that requires time and a phased approach. (iii) Key results indicators and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) frameworks should be linked to development objectives and a clearly stated theory of change. (iv) For affordability reasons, water user fees may be insufficient to ensure the financial viability of water user groups; in that case, additional sources of funds including subsidies may need to be considered.

India: Tamil Nadu Irrigated Agriculture Modernization and Water-Bodies Restoration and Management Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report assesses the development effectiveness of India’s Tamil Nadu Irrigated Agriculture Modernization and Water-Bodies Restoration and Management (TN-IAMWARM) project, which was approved in 2007 and closed in 2015. The development objective of the project was to assist selected subbasin stakeholders in increasing the productivity of irrigated agriculture in Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report assesses the development effectiveness of India’s Tamil Nadu Irrigated Agriculture Modernization and Water-Bodies Restoration and Management (TN-IAMWARM) project, which was approved in 2007 and closed in 2015. The development objective of the project was to assist selected subbasin stakeholders in increasing the productivity of irrigated agriculture in the state of Tamil Nadu within an integrated water resources management framework. Ratings for this project are as follows: Outcomes was satisfactory, Risk to development was substantial, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) Irrigation project design that combines improvements in infrastructure with activities for improving agricultural and water use practices, agricultural inputs, and marketing support and linkages, can be a viable and effective approach for improving agricultural productivity and rural livelihoods. (ii) For the several line departments that are necessarily involved in multi-dimensional irrigation projects, the provision of appropriate training can play a pivotal role in fostering collaborative behavior among the departments, and to orient them towards the farmer beneficiary as the focal point of their services. (iii) The tone set by the project leadership is crucial for fostering and sustaining collaborative behavior across diverse implementing agencies. (iv) Including a water resource management component in an irrigation project can be a strategically important decision with long-term payoffs but may have to be supplemented by other projects to realize the potential for wider water management and climate smart agricultural policies. (v) Introduction of water budgeting concepts at the village or sub-basin level is a crucial first step to build on by gradually promoting the measurement of water use and agricultural water productivity.

Changes in Carbon Markets and Regulatory Systems from Kyoto to Paris and How the World Bank Group Responded to these Changes (Working Paper)

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This study provides a structured review of the existing literature on changes in international market mechanisms for greenhouse gas reductions and related regulatory systems. The assessment period 1997 to 2016 starts with the signing of the Kyoto Protocol and ends with the entry into force of the Paris Agreement. It can be differentiated into a period of emergence of market mechanisms until 2005 Show MoreThis study provides a structured review of the existing literature on changes in international market mechanisms for greenhouse gas reductions and related regulatory systems. The assessment period 1997 to 2016 starts with the signing of the Kyoto Protocol and ends with the entry into force of the Paris Agreement. It can be differentiated into a period of emergence of market mechanisms until 2005, a gold rush from 2006 to 2011, a fragmentation of markets lasting until 2015, and a brief post-Paris period of relaunch, of a new climate policy agreement. A key aspect of the review is how the World Bank Group responded to changes. The review includes about 300 peer-reviewed articles and about 40 articles from gray literature coming from highly-reputed sources. A large share of the literature examined covers the flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol with a strong focus on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). This is a consequence of the unexpected success of the CDM in the carbon market, at least until 2011–12, as well as the transparency of the mechanism that has facilitated research. As topics and issues related to the international carbon market emerged, the Bank Group tried to address them, focusing on developing countries to enhance their participation in the market. However, there is only limited peer-reviewed literature that assesses the Bank Group strategies and operations. Key changes in markets and regulatory frameworks as well as the responses of the Bank Group can be grouped into four main periods that are briefly discussed below.

IEG Work Program and Budget (FY20) and Indicative Plan (FY21-22)

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To maximize its relevance and value added for the World Bank Group (WBG), IEG will align its work program with WBG strategic priorities. IEG also aims to maintain a clear line of sight with the WBG mission and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as well as with commitments made in the IBRD and IFC Capital Packages and in the context of IDA replenishments. Furthermore, IEG will keep an Show MoreTo maximize its relevance and value added for the World Bank Group (WBG), IEG will align its work program with WBG strategic priorities. IEG also aims to maintain a clear line of sight with the WBG mission and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as well as with commitments made in the IBRD and IFC Capital Packages and in the context of IDA replenishments. Furthermore, IEG will keep an increased focus on outcomes, countries, clients, and beneficiaries in its work, and aim to foster a greater outcome orientation throughout the WBG. To achieve this strategic vision, IEG will focus its work program on the key development effectiveness questions that the institution and its clients are most concerned about. For each of these questions, we will strive to answer “why”, “how, “where”, “when”, and “for whom” specific interventions or programs have achieved results or not. By working more closely with operational units and other evaluation initiatives across the WBG, we will seek to significantly enhance IEG’s value added for the Board and WBG management. The work program will be anchored around a series of “streams”, building evidence over time on connected themes and trying to bridge between project, country, sector and strategic impact: Fragility, Conflict and Violence (FCV), Gender, Maximizing Finance for Development, Human Capital, Climate Change, Growth and Transformation. In addition, IEG will work along an ‘effectiveness’ cross-cutting stream, aimed at examining systemic issues in WBG effectiveness, as well as working towards building a stronger outcome focus for WBG operations and strategies.

Papua New Guinea CLR Review FY13-18

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This review covers the period of the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS), FY13-FY16, and updated in the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) dated July 1, 2016. At the PLR stage, the CPS period was extended by two years. Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a lower middle-income country with a Gross National Income (GNI) per capita of $2,340 in 2017. Oil and gas extraction has been the main driver of Show MoreThis review covers the period of the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS), FY13-FY16, and updated in the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) dated July 1, 2016. At the PLR stage, the CPS period was extended by two years. Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a lower middle-income country with a Gross National Income (GNI) per capita of $2,340 in 2017. Oil and gas extraction has been the main driver of economic growth. During the CPS period, GDP growth varied considerably, from 0.3 percent in 2018 to 15 percent in 2014, due to volatility in commodity prices and disruption in the operations of three major mining and petroleum projects from a 7.5 magnitude earthquake in 2018. The country’s Human Development Index increased from 0.52 percent in 2010 to 0.544 in 2017, ranking 153rd among 189 countries in 2017. PNG rejoined the WBG’s Harmonized List of Fragile and conflict affected situation Countries (FCS) in FY17 and FY18. This list had excluded PNG since 2011. The World Bank Group’s (WBG) CPS had three pillars (or focus areas): (i) increased and more gender-equitable access to inclusive physical and financial infrastructure, (ii) gender equitable improvements in lives and livelihoods, and (iii) increasingly prudent management of revenues and benefits. IEG rated the CPS development outcome as moderately unsatisfactory, and the WBG performance as fair. The CLR provides three lessons: First, portfolio improvements require sustained engagement by all project teams, implementing agencies, and the Government, as well as stronger interagency coordination. Second, PNG’s institutional and social fragility places a premium on understanding political economy factors with a bearing on projects, and on monitoring and ensuring awareness of grievance redress mechanisms. Third, partnerships can help expand ASA, increase the WBG’s impact, and test new ideas.

Tajikistan CLR Review FY15-18

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This independent review of the World Bank Group's Completion and Learning Review (CLR) covers the period of the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS), FY15-FY18.The government's National Development Strategy (NDS), 2006-2015, aimed at generating sustainable growth, improving public administration, and developing human resources. The CPS original design was broadly aligned with NDS through its three Show MoreThis independent review of the World Bank Group's Completion and Learning Review (CLR) covers the period of the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS), FY15-FY18.The government's National Development Strategy (NDS), 2006-2015, aimed at generating sustainable growth, improving public administration, and developing human resources. The CPS original design was broadly aligned with NDS through its three focus areas: (1) strengthening the role of the private sector; (2) social inclusion; and, (3) promoting regional connectivity. The CPS design also included cross-cutting areas in gender, governance, and climate change. The CPS sought to help Tajikistan transition to a new growth model. The cost of complying with business regulation dropped, although Tajikistan continues to rank the lowest in the Central Asia region per the 2019 Doing Business report. Tax e-filing has exceeded expectations, but taxpayer satisfaction with new procedures was not assessed. The World Bank collaborated effectively with development partners in areas such as energy, water, and governance. INT received ten complaints and launched three investigations which all closed as substantiated.IEG agrees with the lessons and highlights the following: (i) overambitious objectives and/or under-emphasis of institutional impacted the success of the CPS program; (ii) with greater ownership and commitment, the government can (and does) implement “transformational projects” and achieve significant results; and, (iii) uneven governance standards, weak administration capacities, and inadequate internal review practices are constraints to swift implementation and need to be anticipated and managed proactively.IEG adds two lessons: i) A country program should identify objectives that match the level of ambition of the program and its intended results and impact; and ii) Political economy analysis of the drivers of policy reform is necessary early on to accompany implementation of ambitious goals.

Uzbekistan: Irrigation and Drainage Interventions to Support the Agriculture Sector (PPAR)

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This is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) of the World Bank Group on the Ferghana Valley Water Resources Management Project Phase I and the Uzbekistan Rural Enterprise Support Project Phase II in the Republic of Uzbekistan. This PPAR provides insights into how these two projects identified and addressed critical irrigation sector needs to Show MoreThis is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) of the World Bank Group on the Ferghana Valley Water Resources Management Project Phase I and the Uzbekistan Rural Enterprise Support Project Phase II in the Republic of Uzbekistan. This PPAR provides insights into how these two projects identified and addressed critical irrigation sector needs to improve the country’s irrigation and drainage systems and institutions, both at on-farm and inter-farm levels. The assessment pays special attention to the effectiveness and sustainability of capacity-building support provided to water consumer associations in both projects. Based on such assessment, the PPAR draws common lessons regarding the design and implementation of both projects, which were led by two separate World Bank Global Practices: Water, and Agriculture. The lessons from this PPAR feed into IEG’s forthcoming Evaluation on Strengthening Irrigation Management Models for Sustainable Service Delivery. Ratings for the Ferghana Valley Water Resources Management Project Phase I are as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was substantial, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Lessons from this project include: (1) Establishing adequate institutional arrangements is critical for sustainable use of improved agricultural technologies and practices such as land leveling and deep ripping. (ii) Sound selection criteria for identifying beneficiaries and areas are crucial for the farmers’ uptake and use of water-saving technologies. Ratings for the Rural Enterprise Support Project Phase II are as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Lessons include: (1) Coordinated and mutually reinforcing capacity building of financial institutions and farmers is crucial for establishing viable on-farm investments. (ii) Clear concept, measurement, and disclosure arrangements at project appraisal for sensitive data can ensure the availability of results at project completion.

Peru: Sierra Rural Development Project (PPAR)

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This is the Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) for the Peru Sierra Rural Development Project (P079165). The assessment will contribute to learning from projects that seek to increase the integration of small-scale producers with market value chains. The loan agreement stated that the project development objective was to assist the Borrower in improving the assets and economic conditions Show MoreThis is the Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) for the Peru Sierra Rural Development Project (P079165). The assessment will contribute to learning from projects that seek to increase the integration of small-scale producers with market value chains. The loan agreement stated that the project development objective was to assist the Borrower in improving the assets and economic conditions of rural families in selected areas of the Borrower’s Apurímac, Ayacucho, Huancavelica, Junín, Huánuco, and Pasco regions, and strengthen government capacity to implement an integrated Sierra development strategy. Ratings for the Sierra Rural Development Project are as follows: Outcomes was satisfactory, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Quality of monitoring and evaluation was substantial. Four lessons from the experience of this assessment include: (i) Subproject investments by producer groups are more likely to be viable when the selection of subprojects is competitive and demand-driven, and it entails a substantial producer contribution to subproject cost. (ii) Building partnerships between actors in the market value chain is difficult and, in some circumstances, may not be feasible in the short term. (iii) Subproject investments by producer groups give a one-off boost to poor producer households without necessarily ensuring that they will continue to grow, or that the groups to which they belong will become stronger. (iv) Ensuring complementarity between subproject investments by producer groups and government-financed infrastructure and services, although hard to achieve, is important for maximizing impact.