Search

Topic:Transport
Displaying 1 - 10 of 107

Croatia CLR Review FY14-17

PDF file
This review of the Croatia's Completion and Learning Review (CLR) of the World Bank Group's (WBG) Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) covers the CPS period, FY14-FY17, and the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) of 2016.The World Bank Group program had three focus areas: (i) promoting fiscal consolidation, (ii) improving competitiveness to spur growth, and (iii) maximizing the benefits of EU Show MoreThis review of the Croatia's Completion and Learning Review (CLR) of the World Bank Group's (WBG) Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) covers the CPS period, FY14-FY17, and the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) of 2016.The World Bank Group program had three focus areas: (i) promoting fiscal consolidation, (ii) improving competitiveness to spur growth, and (iii) maximizing the benefits of EU membership. These were broadly congruent with the government's 2013 Economic Program, which covered fiscal consolidation with a particular focus on pension reform and rationalizing hospitals; growth and competitiveness through a sustainable development strategy based on the knowledge economy; and absorption of EU funds available to Croatia. The CPS addressed key challenges facing the country, including EU accession, and was congruent with the Government's 2013 Economic Program and aligned with the WBG's twin goals. The analytical work undertaken by the World Bank contributed to the 2018 Systematic Country Diagnostic Study (SCD), and addressed fiscal issues as well as issues in the justice system, energy, and smart specialization. Portfolio performance was comparable with the ECA region and the World Bank, but some interventions were affected by changes in government priorities.

North Macedonia: Regional and Local Roads Program Support Project (PPAR)

PDF file
This PPAR assesses the development effectiveness of the Regional and Local Roads Program Support project in North Macedonia, which was approved in 2008. The original development objective of the project, “to reduce cost of access to markets and services for communities served by regional and local roads,” was revised through a level I restructuring in 2013 “to reduce the cost of safe access to Show MoreThis PPAR assesses the development effectiveness of the Regional and Local Roads Program Support project in North Macedonia, which was approved in 2008. The original development objective of the project, “to reduce cost of access to markets and services for communities served by regional and local roads,” was revised through a level I restructuring in 2013 “to reduce the cost of safe access to markets and services for communities served by regional and local roads in North Macedonia’s territory, and to improve institutional capacity for investment planning and road safety.” The revised objective thus introduced the element of road safety to access, as well as institutional capacity for investment planning and road safety. Ratings for the Regional and Local Roads Program Support Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was substantial, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) Objective criteria developed and applied in a participatory manner can support a transparent framework to allocate investments and maintenance funds in the roads sector. (ii) The decentralization of responsibilities to local governments needs to be accompanied by the availability of commensurate resources and capacity building. (iii) Road safety and road design elements need to be jointly integrated into the project design and monitoring framework to mitigate risks to the effectiveness of road projects. (iv) Road project appraisal requires sufficient time and technical due diligence to ensure effective and timely project implementation.

Rwanda: Urban Infrastructure and City Management Project (UICMP) (PPAR)

PDF file
This Project Performance Assessment Report reviews the Rwanda Urban Infrastructure and City Management Project (UICMP). The project was approved on November 10, 2005 and became effective on June 2, 2006. The project’s original closing date of March 31, 2009, was extended by nine months to December 31, 2009. The project was financed by an International Development Association (IDA) grant ($20 Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report reviews the Rwanda Urban Infrastructure and City Management Project (UICMP). The project was approved on November 10, 2005 and became effective on June 2, 2006. The project’s original closing date of March 31, 2009, was extended by nine months to December 31, 2009. The project was financed by an International Development Association (IDA) grant ($20 million) and a Professional Human Resource Development grant ($0.46 million), and contributions from the government of Rwanda ($2.6 million). The Nordic Development Fund provided parallel financing ($6.4 million). The project development objective (PDO) was to increase access to urban infrastructure and services in the primary city of Kigali and the two secondary cities of Butare and Ruhengeri through physical investment and upgrading and improved management tools. Ratings for this project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Main lessons from this operation are as follows: (i) The World Bank’s absence in a sector creates knowledge and implementation gaps for both World Bank and client, requiring significant catch-up transaction costs. (ii) Using a delegated management agency to address the weak implementation capacity of local governments requires a focus on building such capacity and a clear exit strategy to ensure long-term sustainability. (iii) To maximize learning from pilot project components, their lessons should be documented and disseminated to inform the future work of the World Bank and government.

Albania: Secondary and Local Roads Project (PPAR)

PDF file
This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Secondary and Local Roads Project in Albania approved in 2008. The project development objective was to improve access to essential services and economic markets via the provision of all-weather roads for the resident population in the rural areas of Albania. This would be achieved through Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Secondary and Local Roads Project in Albania approved in 2008. The project development objective was to improve access to essential services and economic markets via the provision of all-weather roads for the resident population in the rural areas of Albania. This would be achieved through reconstructing selected secondary and local roads; building the competencies of the implementation agency Albanian Development Fund (ADF); building an asset management system for the secondary and local road networks; and improving capacity in the local community for maintenance. Ratings for the Secondary and Local Roads Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome as moderate, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) Implementing a successful multidonor programmatic approach to sector development requires the combination of government commitment with credible planning and common rules of engagement. (ii) Concentrating competencies within one agency may frustrate future decentralization of responsibilities. (iii) In the absence of need-based and credible linkages to resource allocation, a road asset management system may not get sufficient traction.

Mozambique: Southern Africa Regional Gas Project (PPAR)

PDF file
When the Southern Africa Regional Gas Project (SARGP) was approved in November 2003, Mozambique had seen strong economic growth since the end of the civil war in 1992 but faced challenges in improving its business environment and attracting foreign investment. Although Mozambique’s gas reserves had been discovered in the 1960s, they remained undeveloped. The World Bank had provided advice and Show MoreWhen the Southern Africa Regional Gas Project (SARGP) was approved in November 2003, Mozambique had seen strong economic growth since the end of the civil war in 1992 but faced challenges in improving its business environment and attracting foreign investment. Although Mozambique’s gas reserves had been discovered in the 1960s, they remained undeveloped. The World Bank had provided advice and technical assistance to help develop the gas fields since 1991. In 2000, the government signed an agreement with the South African petrochemical company, Sasol, under which Sasol would develop the gas reserves in Mozambique and export natural gas to South Africa over a 25-year period. The stated objective of the SARGP was to help: “initiate the development and export of Mozambique’s substantial natural gas resources in an environmentally sustainable manner, thereby contributing towards economic growth and poverty reduction in Mozambique.” The project ratings are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was negligible to low, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from this experience include: (i) The PRG instrument can provide distinct risk mitigation to support a first-of-kind public-private partnership project in an untested policy and regulatory environment. (ii) Even as a late entrant into a project’s financing structure, the Bank Group can leverage its presence to enhance E&S safeguards and community development initiatives. (iii) Some flexibility in concession agreements to review price mechanism clauses in the event of extreme divergence from initial assumptions can help enhance long-term viability of a public-private partnership project. (iv) Coordination of corporate local community development initiatives with local government programs can help enhance their sustainability. (v) Proactive measures by the sponsor company to develop local suppliers are likely to be needed to ensure upstream linkages in extractive industry projects.

China: ShiZheng Railway Project (PPAR)

PDF file
Railways are vital to China’s social and economic development. As a large economy with a vast geographical area and a huge population, China has massive volumes of passenger and freight traffic moving over medium to long distances. Because of the high demand for rail services, railways are one of the most economic and effective means of transport for the medium- to long-distance transport market Show MoreRailways are vital to China’s social and economic development. As a large economy with a vast geographical area and a huge population, China has massive volumes of passenger and freight traffic moving over medium to long distances. Because of the high demand for rail services, railways are one of the most economic and effective means of transport for the medium- to long-distance transport market in China. They are also more energy-efficient and environment-friendly than other transport modes on a comparable capacity basis. The World Bank initiated a programmatic engagement with China’s railways in 2008 through a program of six projects to support construction of priority high-speed railway (HSR) lines. The program was also intended to be a platform for the World Bank to continue its policy dialogue with the government on railway sector reform. The ShiZheng Railway Project was the first of the six projects. The project’s original objectives were to meet the growing freight and passenger market demand in the railway corridor section between Shijiazhuang and Zhengzhou while substantially improving the level of service offered to customers. After the restructuring in 2012, a new objective was added – to improve the maintenance of the catenary system on high-speed rail lines – but the original objectives were unchanged. Ratings from the project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was negligible, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. The following lessons are drawn from the project experience: (i) Sound technical design, project preparation, and implementation management, combined with assured financial resources and effective interinstitutional collaboration, are a recipe for success for a complex HSR project. (ii) Effective high speed railway systems require certain preconditions. (iii) Successful reforms in large and complex infrastructure sectors such as railways involve sustained policy changes supported through long-term policy dialogue and engagements. (iv) Agglomeration effects are an important benefit of high-speed rail development and could be incorporated in the cost-benefit analysis of such projects. (v) Good connections of HSR lines with other transport modes and between the rail stations and urban centers are critical to achieving the full benefits of high-speed trains.

Burkina Faso: Growth and Competitiveness Credits 1-4 (PPAR)

PDF file
This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the Growth and Competitiveness Credit Development Policy Financing series (I–IV) implemented in Burkina Faso between 2012 and 2015. The total cost of the four operations was $359 million equivalent. The first operation was approved by the Board of the International Development Association (IDA) on June 26, 2012, and the last on April 2, Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the Growth and Competitiveness Credit Development Policy Financing series (I–IV) implemented in Burkina Faso between 2012 and 2015. The total cost of the four operations was $359 million equivalent. The first operation was approved by the Board of the International Development Association (IDA) on June 26, 2012, and the last on April 2, 2015. The series closed on December 31, 2015. The Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) prepared the report based on interviews, a review of World Bank files, and documents and data collected during a field visit to Burkina Faso in November 2017. The mission met with World Bank staff, government officials, beneficiaries of the reforms, donors, academia, and civil society groups. The evaluation also draws from interviews with the task team leaders and country manager of Burkina Faso. The series followed 11 budget support operations of the Poverty Reduction Support Credits and Grants 1–11 in Burkina Faso and was the only type of development policy operation financed by IDA resources during the period.

China: NanGuang Railway Project (PPAR)

PDF file
The purpose of this Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) for the World Bank’s NanGuang Railway Project in China is to offer closer and deeper insights on the project’s outcome, based on updated evidence, including an assessment of the project’s contribution to sector reform and institutional improvement. The PPAR is the first of three PPARs, each for a World Bank–financed large railway Show MoreThe purpose of this Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) for the World Bank’s NanGuang Railway Project in China is to offer closer and deeper insights on the project’s outcome, based on updated evidence, including an assessment of the project’s contribution to sector reform and institutional improvement. The PPAR is the first of three PPARs, each for a World Bank–financed large railway investment project in China that was completed over the past five years. Although the World Bank’s financing ranged from US$200 million to US$300 million and accounted for a small percentage of the total cost for each project, all three projects provided a platform for railway sector policy engagements between the World Bank and the Government. The goal of the NanGuang Railway Project was to enhance transport services in a congested corridor connecting a large and populous less-developed western region in Southwest China and the more-developed Pearl River delta region, with the aim of contributing to regional economic development. The project was also intended to serve as a platform for the World Bank to continue its policy engagement with the Government of China in the railway sector. Ratings for the NanGuang Railway Project are as follows: Outcome is satisfactory, Risk to development outcome is negligible, Bank performance is satisfactory, and Borrower performance is satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) Sound technical design, project preparation, and implementation management, combined with a strong financial capacity, are a recipe for success for a high-speed railway project. (ii) Agglomeration effects are an important benefit of high-speed rail development and should be incorporated in the benefit-cost analysis of such projects. (iii) Successful reforms in large and complex infrastructure sectors such as railways in China require sustained policy dialogue and engagements. (iv) Good connections of high-speed railway lines with other transport modes and between the rail stations and urban centers are critical to achieving the full benefits of high speed trains.

Romania CLR Review FY14-18

PDF file
This review of the World Bank Group’s Completion and Learning Report (CLR) covers the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) and the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) dated November 3, 2016. The original CPS period (FY14-17) was at the PLR stage extended by one year to cover FY14-18. The CLR and this review cover this extended period. Romania is an upper middle-income country with a GNI per Show MoreThis review of the World Bank Group’s Completion and Learning Report (CLR) covers the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) and the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) dated November 3, 2016. The original CPS period (FY14-17) was at the PLR stage extended by one year to cover FY14-18. The CLR and this review cover this extended period. Romania is an upper middle-income country with a GNI per capita of $9,480 in 2016 and a population of 19.7 million. Romania’s per capita GDP had grown rapidly up to 2009, reducing poverty, but the global financial crisis of 2008 triggered a severe recession. The IMF Article IV report (May 2017) notes that Romania strengthened its economy considerably after the global financial crisis. Romania registered an average annual GDP growth of 3.9 percent during the review period (2014-2016). Public debt and fiscal and current account imbalances are moderate compared to many emerging markets, but significant challenges remain and the momentum of progress in policies has waned. Income convergence with the EU has slowed and poverty is among the highest in the EU. Romania has a Human Development Index (HDI) of .802 in 2015, placing the country in the very high human development category and ranking 50 (of 188) in HDI in 2015. Its Gini coefficient is 28.3 in 2016 (from around 35 in 2010) and its poverty headcount ratio based on the national poverty line is 25.4 percent (average 2014-2016).

Burkina Faso CLR Review FY13-16

PDF file
Burkina Faso is a low-income country with a GNI per capita of $620 in 2016. During 2013-2016, annual GDP growth averaged 5.0 percent, but annual GDP per capita growth was only 1.9 percent due to high population growth. Economic growth was built on a narrow base, mainly agriculture and mining, and has failed to produce a sufficient number of jobs to absorb the rapidly growing work force, 80 Show MoreBurkina Faso is a low-income country with a GNI per capita of $620 in 2016. During 2013-2016, annual GDP growth averaged 5.0 percent, but annual GDP per capita growth was only 1.9 percent due to high population growth. Economic growth was built on a narrow base, mainly agriculture and mining, and has failed to produce a sufficient number of jobs to absorb the rapidly growing work force, 80 percent of which are in agriculture. While the poverty rate declined from 50 percent to 40 percent between 2003 and 2014, the absolute number of people living in poverty, of which 90 percent live in rural areas, remained roughly the same between the two periods – lack of access by the poor to social services and basic infrastructure has been a major constraint. The level of vulnerability of households is high, with two-thirds suffering from shocks each year, mainly from natural hazards. Burkina Faso ranked 185 out of 188 countries in 2015 in the Human Development Index.