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Peru: Decentralized Subnational Roads Management

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This is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) on the Peru Regional Transport Infrastructure Decentralization Project, and the Decentralized Rural Transport Project. The objective of the Regional Project was to improve, through decentralization at the regional level the prioritization, the efficiency and effectiveness of regional transport interventions to contribute to Show MoreThis is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) on the Peru Regional Transport Infrastructure Decentralization Project, and the Decentralized Rural Transport Project. The objective of the Regional Project was to improve, through decentralization at the regional level the prioritization, the efficiency and effectiveness of regional transport interventions to contribute to regional development and poverty alleviation by enhancing transport conditions in the borrower’s territory. The Rural Project was to contribute to territorial development and the fight against rural poverty in the borrower’s territory by improving access of rural households and entrepreneurs to goods, social services, and income-generating opportunities through reduced transport costs and better rural transport infrastructure. Ratings for the Regional Transport Infrastructure Decentralization Project are as follows: Outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, Risk to development outcome was significant, Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately unsatisfactory. Ratings for the Decentralized Rural Transport Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was significant, and Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from these projects include: (i) Subnational governments need to own their road planning instruments to ensure their use. (ii) Ways to sustain the community-based microenterprises model for rural road maintenance need to be found. (iii) Road maintenance is essential all year round, and funding and bidding schedules need to be adjusted accordingly. (iv) Poverty impacts of rural roads projects are difficult to attribute. (v) f the road agency carries out activities that are outside its core responsibilities, it needs to involve the other ministries and government agencies that are responsible for these activities to ensure sustainability. (vi) Transferring successful solutions from one government level to another requires a careful contextual analysis and the subnational governments’ participation in decision making from the outset.

IEG Work Program and Budget (FY20) and Indicative Plan (FY21-22)

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To maximize its relevance and value added for the World Bank Group (WBG), IEG will align its work program with WBG strategic priorities. IEG also aims to maintain a clear line of sight with the WBG mission and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as well as with commitments made in the IBRD and IFC Capital Packages and in the context of IDA replenishments. Furthermore, IEG will keep an Show MoreTo maximize its relevance and value added for the World Bank Group (WBG), IEG will align its work program with WBG strategic priorities. IEG also aims to maintain a clear line of sight with the WBG mission and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as well as with commitments made in the IBRD and IFC Capital Packages and in the context of IDA replenishments. Furthermore, IEG will keep an increased focus on outcomes, countries, clients, and beneficiaries in its work, and aim to foster a greater outcome orientation throughout the WBG. To achieve this strategic vision, IEG will focus its work program on the key development effectiveness questions that the institution and its clients are most concerned about. For each of these questions, we will strive to answer “why”, “how, “where”, “when”, and “for whom” specific interventions or programs have achieved results or not. By working more closely with operational units and other evaluation initiatives across the WBG, we will seek to significantly enhance IEG’s value added for the Board and WBG management. The work program will be anchored around a series of “streams”, building evidence over time on connected themes and trying to bridge between project, country, sector and strategic impact: Fragility, Conflict and Violence (FCV), Gender, Maximizing Finance for Development, Human Capital, Climate Change, Growth and Transformation. In addition, IEG will work along an ‘effectiveness’ cross-cutting stream, aimed at examining systemic issues in WBG effectiveness, as well as working towards building a stronger outcome focus for WBG operations and strategies.

Managing Urban Spatial Growth: An evaluation of World Bank support to land administration, planning and development (Approach Paper)

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Managing urban spatial growth matters to reduce poverty and promote shared prosperity. As cities sprawl they become more unequal and inefficient. Land markets enable urban development through private investments in land and assets that guide spatial growth. However, when land management and land use planning are deficient, informal land markets proliferate, fostering the growth of slums and urban Show MoreManaging urban spatial growth matters to reduce poverty and promote shared prosperity. As cities sprawl they become more unequal and inefficient. Land markets enable urban development through private investments in land and assets that guide spatial growth. However, when land management and land use planning are deficient, informal land markets proliferate, fostering the growth of slums and urban sprawl. The World Bank has outlined an agenda for supporting urbanization which frames urban development in the context of a market‐based approach informed by spatial considerations. For over three decades the World Bank has been supporting and strengthening city institutions which manage urban spatial growth through land administration, land use planning and land development. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the relevance and contribution of WB support to enhance the capacity of clients to manage urban spatial growth through land administration, land use planning and land development. The evaluation will document what works and why; and to draw lessons for future interventions. The evaluation will also assess World Bank support to foster client’s capacity to meet relevant SDG’s as they relate to the management of urban spatial growth including, equal rights over ownership and control (SDG 1.4.2), inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries (SDG 11.3) as outlined in the United Nations New Urban Agenda 2017‐20305. This evaluation complements the forthcoming evaluation Building Urban Resilience: An evaluation of the World Bank Groups Evolving Experience 2007‐2017.

Croatia CLR Review FY14-17

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This review of the Croatia's Completion and Learning Review (CLR) of the World Bank Group's (WBG) Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) covers the CPS period, FY14-FY17, and the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) of 2016.The World Bank Group program had three focus areas: (i) promoting fiscal consolidation, (ii) improving competitiveness to spur growth, and (iii) maximizing the benefits of EU Show MoreThis review of the Croatia's Completion and Learning Review (CLR) of the World Bank Group's (WBG) Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) covers the CPS period, FY14-FY17, and the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) of 2016.The World Bank Group program had three focus areas: (i) promoting fiscal consolidation, (ii) improving competitiveness to spur growth, and (iii) maximizing the benefits of EU membership. These were broadly congruent with the government's 2013 Economic Program, which covered fiscal consolidation with a particular focus on pension reform and rationalizing hospitals; growth and competitiveness through a sustainable development strategy based on the knowledge economy; and absorption of EU funds available to Croatia. The CPS addressed key challenges facing the country, including EU accession, and was congruent with the Government's 2013 Economic Program and aligned with the WBG's twin goals. The analytical work undertaken by the World Bank contributed to the 2018 Systematic Country Diagnostic Study (SCD), and addressed fiscal issues as well as issues in the justice system, energy, and smart specialization. Portfolio performance was comparable with the ECA region and the World Bank, but some interventions were affected by changes in government priorities.

North Macedonia: Regional and Local Roads Program Support Project (PPAR)

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This PPAR assesses the development effectiveness of the Regional and Local Roads Program Support project in North Macedonia, which was approved in 2008. The original development objective of the project, “to reduce cost of access to markets and services for communities served by regional and local roads,” was revised through a level I restructuring in 2013 “to reduce the cost of safe access to Show MoreThis PPAR assesses the development effectiveness of the Regional and Local Roads Program Support project in North Macedonia, which was approved in 2008. The original development objective of the project, “to reduce cost of access to markets and services for communities served by regional and local roads,” was revised through a level I restructuring in 2013 “to reduce the cost of safe access to markets and services for communities served by regional and local roads in North Macedonia’s territory, and to improve institutional capacity for investment planning and road safety.” The revised objective thus introduced the element of road safety to access, as well as institutional capacity for investment planning and road safety. Ratings for the Regional and Local Roads Program Support Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was substantial, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) Objective criteria developed and applied in a participatory manner can support a transparent framework to allocate investments and maintenance funds in the roads sector. (ii) The decentralization of responsibilities to local governments needs to be accompanied by the availability of commensurate resources and capacity building. (iii) Road safety and road design elements need to be jointly integrated into the project design and monitoring framework to mitigate risks to the effectiveness of road projects. (iv) Road project appraisal requires sufficient time and technical due diligence to ensure effective and timely project implementation.

Rwanda: Urban Infrastructure and City Management Project (UICMP) (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report reviews the Rwanda Urban Infrastructure and City Management Project (UICMP). The project was approved on November 10, 2005 and became effective on June 2, 2006. The project’s original closing date of March 31, 2009, was extended by nine months to December 31, 2009. The project was financed by an International Development Association (IDA) grant ($20 Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report reviews the Rwanda Urban Infrastructure and City Management Project (UICMP). The project was approved on November 10, 2005 and became effective on June 2, 2006. The project’s original closing date of March 31, 2009, was extended by nine months to December 31, 2009. The project was financed by an International Development Association (IDA) grant ($20 million) and a Professional Human Resource Development grant ($0.46 million), and contributions from the government of Rwanda ($2.6 million). The Nordic Development Fund provided parallel financing ($6.4 million). The project development objective (PDO) was to increase access to urban infrastructure and services in the primary city of Kigali and the two secondary cities of Butare and Ruhengeri through physical investment and upgrading and improved management tools. Ratings for this project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Main lessons from this operation are as follows: (i) The World Bank’s absence in a sector creates knowledge and implementation gaps for both World Bank and client, requiring significant catch-up transaction costs. (ii) Using a delegated management agency to address the weak implementation capacity of local governments requires a focus on building such capacity and a clear exit strategy to ensure long-term sustainability. (iii) To maximize learning from pilot project components, their lessons should be documented and disseminated to inform the future work of the World Bank and government.

Albania: Secondary and Local Roads Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Secondary and Local Roads Project in Albania approved in 2008. The project development objective was to improve access to essential services and economic markets via the provision of all-weather roads for the resident population in the rural areas of Albania. This would be achieved through Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Secondary and Local Roads Project in Albania approved in 2008. The project development objective was to improve access to essential services and economic markets via the provision of all-weather roads for the resident population in the rural areas of Albania. This would be achieved through reconstructing selected secondary and local roads; building the competencies of the implementation agency Albanian Development Fund (ADF); building an asset management system for the secondary and local road networks; and improving capacity in the local community for maintenance. Ratings for the Secondary and Local Roads Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome as moderate, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) Implementing a successful multidonor programmatic approach to sector development requires the combination of government commitment with credible planning and common rules of engagement. (ii) Concentrating competencies within one agency may frustrate future decentralization of responsibilities. (iii) In the absence of need-based and credible linkages to resource allocation, a road asset management system may not get sufficient traction.

Mozambique: Southern Africa Regional Gas Project (PPAR)

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When the Southern Africa Regional Gas Project (SARGP) was approved in November 2003, Mozambique had seen strong economic growth since the end of the civil war in 1992 but faced challenges in improving its business environment and attracting foreign investment. Although Mozambique’s gas reserves had been discovered in the 1960s, they remained undeveloped. The World Bank had provided advice and Show MoreWhen the Southern Africa Regional Gas Project (SARGP) was approved in November 2003, Mozambique had seen strong economic growth since the end of the civil war in 1992 but faced challenges in improving its business environment and attracting foreign investment. Although Mozambique’s gas reserves had been discovered in the 1960s, they remained undeveloped. The World Bank had provided advice and technical assistance to help develop the gas fields since 1991. In 2000, the government signed an agreement with the South African petrochemical company, Sasol, under which Sasol would develop the gas reserves in Mozambique and export natural gas to South Africa over a 25-year period. The stated objective of the SARGP was to help: “initiate the development and export of Mozambique’s substantial natural gas resources in an environmentally sustainable manner, thereby contributing towards economic growth and poverty reduction in Mozambique.” The project ratings are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was negligible to low, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from this experience include: (i) The PRG instrument can provide distinct risk mitigation to support a first-of-kind public-private partnership project in an untested policy and regulatory environment. (ii) Even as a late entrant into a project’s financing structure, the Bank Group can leverage its presence to enhance E&S safeguards and community development initiatives. (iii) Some flexibility in concession agreements to review price mechanism clauses in the event of extreme divergence from initial assumptions can help enhance long-term viability of a public-private partnership project. (iv) Coordination of corporate local community development initiatives with local government programs can help enhance their sustainability. (v) Proactive measures by the sponsor company to develop local suppliers are likely to be needed to ensure upstream linkages in extractive industry projects.

China: ShiZheng Railway Project (PPAR)

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Railways are vital to China’s social and economic development. As a large economy with a vast geographical area and a huge population, China has massive volumes of passenger and freight traffic moving over medium to long distances. Because of the high demand for rail services, railways are one of the most economic and effective means of transport for the medium- to long-distance transport market Show MoreRailways are vital to China’s social and economic development. As a large economy with a vast geographical area and a huge population, China has massive volumes of passenger and freight traffic moving over medium to long distances. Because of the high demand for rail services, railways are one of the most economic and effective means of transport for the medium- to long-distance transport market in China. They are also more energy-efficient and environment-friendly than other transport modes on a comparable capacity basis. The World Bank initiated a programmatic engagement with China’s railways in 2008 through a program of six projects to support construction of priority high-speed railway (HSR) lines. The program was also intended to be a platform for the World Bank to continue its policy dialogue with the government on railway sector reform. The ShiZheng Railway Project was the first of the six projects. The project’s original objectives were to meet the growing freight and passenger market demand in the railway corridor section between Shijiazhuang and Zhengzhou while substantially improving the level of service offered to customers. After the restructuring in 2012, a new objective was added – to improve the maintenance of the catenary system on high-speed rail lines – but the original objectives were unchanged. Ratings from the project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was negligible, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. The following lessons are drawn from the project experience: (i) Sound technical design, project preparation, and implementation management, combined with assured financial resources and effective interinstitutional collaboration, are a recipe for success for a complex HSR project. (ii) Effective high speed railway systems require certain preconditions. (iii) Successful reforms in large and complex infrastructure sectors such as railways involve sustained policy changes supported through long-term policy dialogue and engagements. (iv) Agglomeration effects are an important benefit of high-speed rail development and could be incorporated in the cost-benefit analysis of such projects. (v) Good connections of HSR lines with other transport modes and between the rail stations and urban centers are critical to achieving the full benefits of high-speed trains.

Burkina Faso: Growth and Competitiveness Credits 1-4 (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the Growth and Competitiveness Credit Development Policy Financing series (I–IV) implemented in Burkina Faso between 2012 and 2015. The total cost of the four operations was $359 million equivalent. The first operation was approved by the Board of the International Development Association (IDA) on June 26, 2012, and the last on April 2, Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the Growth and Competitiveness Credit Development Policy Financing series (I–IV) implemented in Burkina Faso between 2012 and 2015. The total cost of the four operations was $359 million equivalent. The first operation was approved by the Board of the International Development Association (IDA) on June 26, 2012, and the last on April 2, 2015. The series closed on December 31, 2015. The Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) prepared the report based on interviews, a review of World Bank files, and documents and data collected during a field visit to Burkina Faso in November 2017. The mission met with World Bank staff, government officials, beneficiaries of the reforms, donors, academia, and civil society groups. The evaluation also draws from interviews with the task team leaders and country manager of Burkina Faso. The series followed 11 budget support operations of the Poverty Reduction Support Credits and Grants 1–11 in Burkina Faso and was the only type of development policy operation financed by IDA resources during the period.