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Topic:Social, Urban, Rural & Resilience
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Nigeria CLR Review FY14-19

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This review of the World Bank Group’s (WBG) Completion and Learning Review (CLR) covers the original period of the Nigeria Country Partnership Strategy (CPS), FY14-17, and the update and extension through FY19 as per the Second Performance and Learning Review (PLR) dated May 2018. The implementation of the CPS program was supported by 26 Bank operations with commitments of US$3.7 billion under Show MoreThis review of the World Bank Group’s (WBG) Completion and Learning Review (CLR) covers the original period of the Nigeria Country Partnership Strategy (CPS), FY14-17, and the update and extension through FY19 as per the Second Performance and Learning Review (PLR) dated May 2018. The implementation of the CPS program was supported by 26 Bank operations with commitments of US$3.7 billion under implementation at the beginning of the CPS and 38 new operations with commitments of US$9.4 billion. IFC invested in 28 projects for US$1.1 billion. MIGA issued three guarantees for US$549 million. The CPS design was well aligned with the challenges the country faced and the stated priorities of government. It also responded well to the challenges that arose during implementation. The CLR drew five lessons. Three of the lessons are: (i) achieving significant impact requires commitment beyond the horizon of a CPS, especially in areas such as energy and conflict mitigation; (ii) it can be difficult to accurately gauge the success or failure of results-based operations since they do not respond to traditional Bank tools for measuring success; and (iii) more care is needed in the selection of CPF objectives and results. In addition, IEG highlights the following two lessons from the CLR and builds on them: (i) The experience from expanding coverage of social assistance programs nationally under a common approach provides lessons that can be used to scale up engagements in other areas. Mainly, to combine the use of federal-level rules, policy coordination mechanisms, monitoring systems and data sharing with state-level program implementation and monitoring systems. (ii) Efforts to address design and implementation challenges included the creation of State Coordination Units to break logjams and the Multi-Sectoral Crisis Response Project (MCRP) to bring together efforts in infrastructure rehabilitation and service delivery in three conflictafflicted states. Further progress could entail absorbing and streamlining within the MCRP sectoral program delivery and institutional structures so as to reduce the number of PIUs and facilitate synergies.

Jamaica: Hurricane Dean Emergency Recovery Loan (PPAR)

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Jamaica is highly exposed to natural disasters. The negative impacts on economic development and social well-being are exacerbated as approximately 82 percent of Jamaica’s population lives within 5 kilometers of the coast, increasing the relative vulnerability of residents, major infrastructure, and the housing stock. Hurricane Dean made landfall in Jamaica on August 19, 2007, causing economic Show MoreJamaica is highly exposed to natural disasters. The negative impacts on economic development and social well-being are exacerbated as approximately 82 percent of Jamaica’s population lives within 5 kilometers of the coast, increasing the relative vulnerability of residents, major infrastructure, and the housing stock. Hurricane Dean made landfall in Jamaica on August 19, 2007, causing economic losses of roughly $329 million. The hurricane resulted in significant and extensive damage to primary and early childhood schools, community-based health clinics, and parochial and agricultural feeder roads in directly impacted parishes. In the aftermath of the hurricane, Jamaica’s Ministry of Finance confirmed that the recovery would require financial support from multiple sources, both national and international. In that context, the government of Jamaica approached the World Bank to support reconstruction works in poor communities affected by Hurricane Dean. The general aim was the reestablishment of prehurricane living conditions in these communities through the implementation of specific local infrastructure projects that would directly improve the conditions of the most vulnerable populations. Given the ongoing emergency, the World Bank and the government of Jamaica agreed to sign an emergency recovery loan to expedite the disbursement of resources. Additionally, the World Bank and the government of Jamaica agreed that the Jamaica Social Investment Fund (JSIF) would be the implementing agency. Ratings for the Hurricane Dean Emergency Recovery Loan are as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from this project include: (i) Using existing agencies with a proven track record can be an effective approach for implementing emergency response projects. (ii) When designing rehabilitation works, close consultation with users can ensure the provision of better services. (iii) Expectations need to be managed as there are limits to how much progress can be made on disaster risk reduction or emergency preparedness under an emergency operation.

Jordan: Cultural Heritage, Tourism, and Urban Development Project (PPAR)

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An Evaluation of the World Bank Group’s Support to Municipal Solid Waste Management, 2010–20 (Approach Paper)

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Municipal solid waste (MSW) has emerged as one of the most pressing challenges for urban areas across the world. This evaluation is the Independent Evaluation Group’s (IEG) first major study of the Bank Group’s support for MSWM. It is timely given the rapidly increasing scale of MSW in most MICs and LICs and considering the spectacle of massive open garbage dumps in cities as diverse as Manila, Show MoreMunicipal solid waste (MSW) has emerged as one of the most pressing challenges for urban areas across the world. This evaluation is the Independent Evaluation Group’s (IEG) first major study of the Bank Group’s support for MSWM. It is timely given the rapidly increasing scale of MSW in most MICs and LICs and considering the spectacle of massive open garbage dumps in cities as diverse as Manila, Lagos, and New Delhi. The evaluation will highlight the linkages of MSWM with other sectors and themes such as water supply and sanitation, environment, climate change, health, jobs, and social protection. This can point to how the Bank Group can better support the development of synergistic policy frameworks and regulations for MSWM in client countries. This has implications for developing systematic collaboration between various sectors within the Bank Group and among client government ministries and for leveraging opportunities for climate finance.

Rwanda CLR Review FY14-20

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In summary, under the Rwanda CPS for FY14-FY20, the World Bank Group supported the government to address problems in areas and sectors that could help reduce poverty and improve shared prosperity. The CLR’s most relevant lessons are summarized as follows. First, government discipline and leadership enhance the effectiveness of official development assistance and the country’s ability to progress Show MoreIn summary, under the Rwanda CPS for FY14-FY20, the World Bank Group supported the government to address problems in areas and sectors that could help reduce poverty and improve shared prosperity. The CLR’s most relevant lessons are summarized as follows. First, government discipline and leadership enhance the effectiveness of official development assistance and the country’s ability to progress. Second, more qualified people working on financial management, procurement and safeguards is needed to enhance the impact of projects and program. Third, plans for agricultural modernization require considering interactions between the rural and urban labor markets to ensure migrating rural workers have gainful urban employment. Fourth, generating knowledge through ASA can help identify binding constraints and design policy reforms in a timely manner. IEG adds the following lesson: Poor results framework make it difficult to learn from a program’s experience, attribute results to the program and assess its achievements, and build knowledge that can guide future program design and implementation. To assess programs, build knowledge and guide future actions, the WBG needs to ensure CPF Results Frameworks have: (a) a clear and coherent results chain and (b) indicators that can be measured, are useful for assessing the achievement of objectives and are linked to the program’s interventions.. In Rwanda, the CPS results framework has shortcomings that makes it difficult to measure the achievement of some objectives, build knowledge and guide future WBG programs.

Georgia: Secondary and Local Roads Project and Kakheti Regional Roads Improvement Project (PPAR)

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Trade is important for Georgia’s economy, and good transport links are essential to promote and sustain it. Roads are the main mode of transport in the country. Therefore, upgrading and managing roads adequately is vital to sustained economic growth. These two projects were the first World Bank projects that focused on secondary and local roads in the country. Previous operations focused on Show MoreTrade is important for Georgia’s economy, and good transport links are essential to promote and sustain it. Roads are the main mode of transport in the country. Therefore, upgrading and managing roads adequately is vital to sustained economic growth. These two projects were the first World Bank projects that focused on secondary and local roads in the country. Previous operations focused on highways and other transport modes. Secondary and local roads both support the country’s economy by providing access to agriculture areas and tourism sites and are important to improving people’s living standards by facilitating access to markets and services, for example. The key finding of this Project Performance Assessment Report is that the two projects contributed to improved road management in Georgia linked to strong government commitment and continuous World Bank support, though results were limited for certain project components mainly because of design and implementation shortcomings. Ratings for the Secondary and Local Roads Project are as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was moderate. Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Kakheti Regional Roads Improvement Project ratings are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was modest, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. This assessment offers the following key lessons of experience: (i) It is impossible to implement a holistic road safety approach through a small, regional project without the formal involvement of key road safety stakeholders, (ii) A sustained engagement on road safety over time can help transform the road safety culture in a country, (iii) Upgrading a road that is barely passable can make it less safe despite the implementation of road safety engineering measures. (iv) Measuring improved road safety resulting from project interventions requires a carefully designed approach. (v) The successful introduction of performance-based maintenance and rehabilitation contracts requires contractors to be aware of the paradigm shift such contracts imply to avoid financial losses.

World Bank Engagement in Situations of Conflict (Approach Paper)

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The World Bank Group has made a strong commitment to addressing the development challenges associated with fragility, conflict, and violence (FCV) as part of its corporate goals. It situates this challenge at the core of its poverty reduction focus, especially since extreme poverty is rising in fragile countries. By 2030, it is estimated that over 50 percent of the world’s extreme poor will live Show MoreThe World Bank Group has made a strong commitment to addressing the development challenges associated with fragility, conflict, and violence (FCV) as part of its corporate goals. It situates this challenge at the core of its poverty reduction focus, especially since extreme poverty is rising in fragile countries. By 2030, it is estimated that over 50 percent of the world’s extreme poor will live in fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCSs). Achieving development outcomes in FCV countries is also critical for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. The purpose of the evaluation is to examine the relationship among various modalities of World Bank engagement in situations of conflict and the achievement of development gains. The evaluation is designed to focus on how the World Bank is working differently in conflict-affected countries, why engagement decisions are made in different contexts, and what contributions the World Bank has made to development gains.

Mozambique: ProMaputo, Maputo Municipal Development Program (MMDP I and II) (PPAR)

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The Maputo Municipal Development Program (MMDP) was designed to directly respond to the need for institutional strengthening to achieve sustained service delivery. Given the need for sustained support, the project was conceived as multiphase programmatic approach of adaptable program loans (APLs) with sequenced objectives. The project development objective of phase I was “to strengthen the Maputo Show MoreThe Maputo Municipal Development Program (MMDP) was designed to directly respond to the need for institutional strengthening to achieve sustained service delivery. Given the need for sustained support, the project was conceived as multiphase programmatic approach of adaptable program loans (APLs) with sequenced objectives. The project development objective of phase I was “to strengthen the Maputo City Council’s institutional and financial capacity to support achievement of long-term service delivery goals, and to implement selected priority investments” (World Bank 2007). Phase II continued to strengthen capacities and to scale up municipal service delivery and infrastructure investments. The project development objective of APL II was “to improve the delivery and sustainability of priority municipal services in Maputo Municipality” (World Bank 2010). Ratings for the ProMaputo, Maputo Municipal Development Program I were as follows: outcome was moderately satisfactory, risk to development outcome was substantial, M&E quality was substantial, Bank performance was satisfactory, Borrower performance was satisfactory. Ratings for the Maputo Municipal Development Program II (MMDP II) were as follows: outcome was moderately satisfactory, risk to development outcome was substantial, M&E quality was substantial, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Lessons for these projects include: (i) In low-capacity settings, where cities are barely able to meet service delivery needs, it may be necessary to deliver critical services while incrementally building municipal capacity for sustained service delivery over time. (ii) Interventions in land administration require a thorough analysis of the local, institutional, and political economy conditions. (iii) Excessive reliance on external expertise can undermine knowledge transfer and ultimately sustainability in municipal development projects. (iv) Achieving outcomes in solid waste management in low-capacity contexts requires a viable financial plan and mechanisms for capital and recurrent expenditures which may include contributions from national and local governments, private partnerships, and user fees. (v) Although achieving universal access to solid waste management is a significant achievement in low-capacity contexts, outcomes are undermined if investment in waste disposal is insufficient, especially for the most vulnerable. (vi) Land use transformation brought about by infrastructure investments can contribute positively to the local tax base, but it can also negatively affect poorer residents when land and housing prices rise.

Next steps for the World Bank’s new strategy for fragility, conflict and violence: what does the evidence say?

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Next steps for the World Bank’s new strategy for fragility, conflict and violence: what does the evidence say?
Evidence from evaluation can ease the transition from theory to practice.Evidence from evaluation can ease the transition from theory to practice.

Colombia: Programmatic Productive and Sustainable Cities Development Policy Loans (PPAR)

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This is the Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) for the programmatic Productive and Sustainable Cities Development Policy Loans (DPLs; P130972) intended to support the strengthening of the government of Colombia’s policy framework on productive, sustainable, and inclusive cities. The DPL’s objective was and remains highly relevant to the national policy and sector context, and most of Show MoreThis is the Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) for the programmatic Productive and Sustainable Cities Development Policy Loans (DPLs; P130972) intended to support the strengthening of the government of Colombia’s policy framework on productive, sustainable, and inclusive cities. The DPL’s objective was and remains highly relevant to the national policy and sector context, and most of the project’s prior actions were substantially designed to fulfill the aims of the DPL reform areas. However, the alignments of some prior actions show weaknesses, especially in the area of achieving more sustainable cities, and with the definition of outcomes and their measurement. Ratings for this project are as follows: outcome was satisfactory, risk to development outcome was modest, bank performance was satisfactory, and borrower performance was satisfactory. Several lessons emerged from this assessment of the Colombian DPL series: (i) Tacit assumptions that additional fiscal outlays will be forthcoming to support prior actions in development policy operations (DPOs) can create risks to the sustainability of policy reforms. (ii) When designing prior actions that require local-level implementation, it is important to consider municipal capacity and the time required to enact local-level reforms. (iii) In designing multisectoral DPOs with many prior actions across sectors, which include local implementation requirements, municipal capacity building may be required. (iv) In the context of multisector DPOs, it is critical that prior actions be directly linked to results indicators so a clear line of sight and envisioned impact is identified ex ante, thus supporting a strong design at entry.