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Topic:Social, Urban, Rural & Resilience
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The World Bank Group Partnership with the Philippines, 2009–18

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The World Bank Group Partnership with the Philippines, 2009–18 Country Program Evaluation
This Country Program Evaluation (CPE) assesses the development effectiveness of the World Bank Group program in the Philippines between 2009 and 2018.This Country Program Evaluation (CPE) assesses the development effectiveness of the World Bank Group program in the Philippines between 2009 and 2018.

Indonesia: Community-based Settlement Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Project for Central and West Java and Yogyakarta Special Region (PPAR)

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The government of Indonesia committed approximately $600 million to fund the reconstruction and rehabilitation of approximately 255,000 homes in the earthquake-affected areas. Several development partners also contributed funds for a significantly smaller reconstruction initiative. At the government’s request, the World Bank used these additional contributions to create a recipient-executed Java Show MoreThe government of Indonesia committed approximately $600 million to fund the reconstruction and rehabilitation of approximately 255,000 homes in the earthquake-affected areas. Several development partners also contributed funds for a significantly smaller reconstruction initiative. At the government’s request, the World Bank used these additional contributions to create a recipient-executed Java Reconstruction Fund (JRF). The World Bank used the JRF’s resources to create the Community-Based Settlement Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Project (CSRRP) for Central and West Java and Yogyakarta Special Region. The CSRRP’s objective was to assist in meeting the needs of eligible households for earthquake-resistant housing and community infrastructure in the affected areas. These objectives were to be achieved through a community-based approach in which beneficiaries would have a major role in decision-making about reconstruction of their homes and the construction of their communities’ infrastructure. Ratings for the Community-based Settlement Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Project (CSRRP) are as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development are modest, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Key lessons from the experience of the project include the following: (i) A community-based approach to postdisaster reconstruction can be effective and efficient in a context in which there is prior experience and existing institutions and cultural norms that favor it. (ii) Careful attention is essential in deciding who will be assisted financially in reconstructing homes, the amount of assistance to be provided, and the perceived effects and consequences of these decisions. (iii) The disaster resilience of project-provided housing can be undermined by subsequent expansion or enlargement of the housing. (iv) Community settlement or similar development plans may not meaningfully support disaster risk reduction unless these plans meet several essential conditions. (v) Women’s participation in community-driven development is a challenge to ensure when their interests, experiences, and perspectives are not properly considered in a project’s design, for example, through a gender analysis that identifies potential opportunities and obstacles to their meaningful participation in decision-making.

Translating the Principles of the Global Compact on Refugees into Concrete Actions

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Translating the Principles of the Global Compact on Refugees into Concrete Actions
Four lessons, based on evidence from evaluation, can inform future efforts to support countries hosting refugees and internally displaced persons.Four lessons, based on evidence from evaluation, can inform future efforts to support countries hosting refugees and internally displaced persons.

Philippines CLR Review FY15-19

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The Philippine economy has been growing rapidly over the past decade. However, performance on poverty reduction, inequality and human development has been persistently low. The country is also a natural disaster hotspot, with frequent typhoons, tropical storms and earthquakes. It has also been affected by internal unrest, predominantly the protracted conflict and violence on the southern island Show MoreThe Philippine economy has been growing rapidly over the past decade. However, performance on poverty reduction, inequality and human development has been persistently low. The country is also a natural disaster hotspot, with frequent typhoons, tropical storms and earthquakes. It has also been affected by internal unrest, predominantly the protracted conflict and violence on the southern island of Mindanao. The 2014 Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) was well aligned with the Philippine Development Plan (PDP) 2011-16 that aimed at reducing poverty and improving the lives of the poorest segments of the population. The subsequent PDP 2017-22 shifted some emphasis to major infrastructure investments – where the WBG has not been particularly active – but also seeks to lift about six million citizens from poverty, achieve upper-middle income status by 2022, and to deliver a comprehensive agenda for peace and development in conflict-affected areas. The WBG program as adjusted in the 2017 PLR was therefore well aligned with significant aspects of the current PDP. The CPS set out a program that was divided in five focus areas: Transparent and Accountable Government; Empowerment of the Poor and the Vulnerable; Rapid, Inclusive and Sustained Economic Growth; Climate Change, Environment, and Disaster Risk Management; and Peace, Institution-Building, and Social and Economic Opportunity – all these areas were of high priority for the country and under the PDP.

Republic of Congo CLR Review FY13-17

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The Republic of Congo is a lower middle-income country with a GNI per capita (Atlas method in current $) of $1,480 in 2017. Oil production had been the main driver of growth and source of government revenues, with average annual GDP growth of 5.8 percent during 2008-2012. The poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 per day (2011 PPP, percent of population) had been declining, from 50.2 percent in 2005 Show MoreThe Republic of Congo is a lower middle-income country with a GNI per capita (Atlas method in current $) of $1,480 in 2017. Oil production had been the main driver of growth and source of government revenues, with average annual GDP growth of 5.8 percent during 2008-2012. The poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 per day (2011 PPP, percent of population) had been declining, from 50.2 percent in 2005 to 37 percent in 2011. However, poverty reduction occurred mainly in urban areas, with rural areas experiencing an increase in the poverty rate. There was little change in the Gini coefficient between 2005 and 2011. During the CPS period, oil prices dropped, resulting in a decline in average annual GDP growth to 1.4 percent during 2013-2017. The Systematic Country Diagnostic (2018) for the Republic of Congo estimated the poverty rate to have declined further to 35 percent in 2016. The human development index improved from 0.57 in 2012 to 0.61 in 2017. The overarching objectives of the CPS were to promote economic diversification and improve outcomes in public services with three pillars: (i) competitiveness and employment; (ii) vulnerability and resilience; and (iii) capacity building and governance.

China CLR Review FY13-17

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China, with a population of 1.4 billion, is an upper middle-income country with a GNI per capita of $8,690 in 2017. During 2013-2017, the economy grew annually at 7.1 percent on average, slower than the previous CPS period of 11.0 percent. A long period of economic growth put pressure on the environment and raised serious sustainability challenges. China is now contributing around 30 percent to Show MoreChina, with a population of 1.4 billion, is an upper middle-income country with a GNI per capita of $8,690 in 2017. During 2013-2017, the economy grew annually at 7.1 percent on average, slower than the previous CPS period of 11.0 percent. A long period of economic growth put pressure on the environment and raised serious sustainability challenges. China is now contributing around 30 percent to the world’s GHG emissions, partly because it is the largest consumer of carbon for electricity. Significant gains in poverty reduction continued during the CPS period. Absolute poverty, measured at $1.90 per day (2011 PPP), dropped from 1.9 percent in 2013 to 0.5 percent in 2018. Poverty and vulnerability in China are concentrated in rural areas and lagging regions in Central and Western China. The welfare of the bottom 40 percent of the income distribution has increased steadily. The Gini coefficient dropped to .46 in 2015 after having risen to a high of .5 in 2008. China’s Human Capital Index (HCI) stands at 0.67 and ranks 45th amongst 158 countries. The CPS had two focus areas: (i) supporting greener growth; and (ii) promoting more inclusive development as well as a cross-cutting theme of advancing mutually beneficial relations with the world.

How to support countries that aspire to middle-income status: Lessons from Rwanda

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How to support countries that aspire to middle-income status: Lessons from Rwanda
Insights from evaluation of the World Bank Group's assistance to Rwanda in its journey toward middle-income status.Insights from evaluation of the World Bank Group's assistance to Rwanda in its journey toward middle-income status.

The Key to Making Cities More Resilient? Accountability.

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The Key to Making Cities More Resilient? Accountability.
Governments and lending institutions must learn to identify—and track the progress of—interventions that build resilience in urban areas.Governments and lending institutions must learn to identify—and track the progress of—interventions that build resilience in urban areas.

Cabo Verde CLR Review FY15-17

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During the CPS period, Cabo Verde’s economy grew annually by an average of 3.2%, an improvement over the average 0.83% growth during 2012-2014. The percentage of the population below the national poverty line fell from 58% in 2001 to 35% in 2015. Cabo Verde’s UN Human Development Index rose from 0.647 in 2015 to 0.654 in 2017, and its rank increased from 132nd of 187 countries Show MoreDuring the CPS period, Cabo Verde’s economy grew annually by an average of 3.2%, an improvement over the average 0.83% growth during 2012-2014. The percentage of the population below the national poverty line fell from 58% in 2001 to 35% in 2015. Cabo Verde’s UN Human Development Index rose from 0.647 in 2015 to 0.654 in 2017, and its rank increased from 132nd of 187 countries in 2013 to 125th of 189 countries in 2015. Development challenges during the CPS period stemmed from the continuing effects of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis. The government responded to the crisis with an ambitious counter-cyclical investment program, leading to increased deficits and reversing a previously declining trajectory of public debt. Major ongoing constraints included lack of human capital (workforce skills), insufficient connectivity (transport, communications, and electricity) among the country’s ten islands; weak public sector performance; poor business climate; and lack of resilience to trade volatility and to climactic and geological hazards.

Social Contracts and World Bank Country Engagements: Lessons from Emerging Practices

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Social Contracts and World Bank Country Engagements Lessons from Emerging Practices
The objective of this evaluation is to take stock of social contract knowledge to assess the World Bank’s role in helping countries reshape their social contracts, especially through the integration of social contract diagnostics into country engagements.The objective of this evaluation is to take stock of social contract knowledge to assess the World Bank’s role in helping countries reshape their social contracts, especially through the integration of social contract diagnostics into country engagements.