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Topic:Fragile States, Conflict, & Violence
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The International Finance Corporation’s Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations: Results and Lessons

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The International Finance Corporation’s Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations: Results and Lessons
This report takes stock of available evidence regarding the effectiveness of IFC’s support in fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCS).This report takes stock of available evidence regarding the effectiveness of IFC’s support in fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCS).

Building Urban Resilience: An Evaluation of the World Bank Group’s Evolving Experience (2007-2017)

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Building Urban Resilience: An Evaluation of the World Bank Group’s Evolving Experience
This evaluation examines the World Bank Group’s evolving experience in building resilience in urban areas during the period 2007–17. The focus of this evaluation is the World Bank Group’s support to clients in building urban resilience—to cope, recover, adapt and transform—in the face of shocks and chronic stresses.This evaluation examines the World Bank Group’s evolving experience in building resilience in urban areas during the period 2007–17. The focus of this evaluation is the World Bank Group’s support to clients in building urban resilience—to cope, recover, adapt and transform—in the face of shocks and chronic stresses.

The International Finance Corporation’s Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations - Results and Lessons

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Fragility, conflict and violence (FCV) pose a major challenge for development and for reaching the Bank Group’s twin goals. Enabling appropriate private sector activities can be a means to break free of the fragility trap by supporting economic growth, promoting local employment and income earning opportunities, generating government revenues, and delivering goods and services. However, the Show MoreFragility, conflict and violence (FCV) pose a major challenge for development and for reaching the Bank Group’s twin goals. Enabling appropriate private sector activities can be a means to break free of the fragility trap by supporting economic growth, promoting local employment and income earning opportunities, generating government revenues, and delivering goods and services. However, the private sector faces substantial constraints in fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCS). This report takes stock of available evidence regarding the effectiveness of IFC’s support in FCS. It aims to inform IFC’s strategy in FCS as IFC seeks to scale up its activities in FCS as part of its commitments under the Capital Increase Package, and to provide inputs for the Bank Group’s Fragility, Conflict and Violence (FCV) strategy currently being developed.

Lebanon: Cultural Heritage and Urban Development Project (PPAR)

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Lebanon has a rich and diverse cultural patrimony inherited from many civilizations that existed in succession on its territory. But this heritage has been damaged by disasters and conflict, and more recently by the rapid and unmanaged growth of Lebanon’s historic cities. The World Bank partnered with the Government of Lebanon and bilateral agencies in 2003 to implement the Cultural Show More Lebanon has a rich and diverse cultural patrimony inherited from many civilizations that existed in succession on its territory. But this heritage has been damaged by disasters and conflict, and more recently by the rapid and unmanaged growth of Lebanon’s historic cities. The World Bank partnered with the Government of Lebanon and bilateral agencies in 2003 to implement the Cultural Heritage and Urban Reconstruction Project (CHUD)-to help conserve and restore the country’s cultural patrimony in five of its historic cities – in Baalbek, Byblos, Saida, Tripoli and Tyre. CHUD’s objective was to create the conditions for increased local economic development and enhanced quality of life its historic centers and to improve the conservation and management of the country’s cultural heritage. The US$119 million project was financed with an IBRD loan,  parallel financing from the Governments of France and Italy, and with counterpart financing. Ratings for this project are as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was substantial, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) Assigning economic values of cultural heritage requires consideration of both its “use” and “non-use” values. (ii) Urban rehabilitation projects designed to expand public space require ex-ante and intermittent analysis of the risks associated with local economic displacement, due to restricted access and the changing preferences of upgraded space. (iii) Infrastructure-led urban rehabilitation of economically dense and culturally sensitive urban cores requires complementary investments in “soft skills” to ensure effective two-way communication about project aspirations and to adapt to citizen concerns. (iv) Cultural heritage and sustainable tourism investments must be designed to respect residents’ needs and aspirations and to protect communities’ residential right from unintended consequences.  

IEG Work Program and Budget (FY20) and Indicative Plan (FY21-22)

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To maximize its relevance and value added for the World Bank Group (WBG), IEG will align its work program with WBG strategic priorities. IEG also aims to maintain a clear line of sight with the WBG mission and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as well as with commitments made in the IBRD and IFC Capital Packages and in the context of IDA replenishments. Furthermore, IEG will keep an Show MoreTo maximize its relevance and value added for the World Bank Group (WBG), IEG will align its work program with WBG strategic priorities. IEG also aims to maintain a clear line of sight with the WBG mission and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as well as with commitments made in the IBRD and IFC Capital Packages and in the context of IDA replenishments. Furthermore, IEG will keep an increased focus on outcomes, countries, clients, and beneficiaries in its work, and aim to foster a greater outcome orientation throughout the WBG. To achieve this strategic vision, IEG will focus its work program on the key development effectiveness questions that the institution and its clients are most concerned about. For each of these questions, we will strive to answer “why”, “how, “where”, “when”, and “for whom” specific interventions or programs have achieved results or not. By working more closely with operational units and other evaluation initiatives across the WBG, we will seek to significantly enhance IEG’s value added for the Board and WBG management. The work program will be anchored around a series of “streams”, building evidence over time on connected themes and trying to bridge between project, country, sector and strategic impact: Fragility, Conflict and Violence (FCV), Gender, Maximizing Finance for Development, Human Capital, Climate Change, Growth and Transformation. In addition, IEG will work along an ‘effectiveness’ cross-cutting stream, aimed at examining systemic issues in WBG effectiveness, as well as working towards building a stronger outcome focus for WBG operations and strategies.

World Bank Group Support in Situations Involving Conflict-Induced Displacement

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World Bank Group Support in Situations Involving Conflict-Induced Displacement
This evaluation assesses the World Bank Group’s approach and support to countries hosting forcibly displaced populations—refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs)—and provides evidence-based lessons to inform the Bank Group’s future role in this area. This evaluation assesses the World Bank Group’s approach and support to countries hosting forcibly displaced populations—refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs)—and provides evidence-based lessons to inform the Bank Group’s future role in this area.

Papua New Guinea CLR Review FY13-18

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This review covers the period of the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS), FY13-FY16, and updated in the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) dated July 1, 2016. At the PLR stage, the CPS period was extended by two years. Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a lower middle-income country with a Gross National Income (GNI) per capita of $2,340 in 2017. Oil and gas extraction has been the main driver of Show MoreThis review covers the period of the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS), FY13-FY16, and updated in the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) dated July 1, 2016. At the PLR stage, the CPS period was extended by two years. Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a lower middle-income country with a Gross National Income (GNI) per capita of $2,340 in 2017. Oil and gas extraction has been the main driver of economic growth. During the CPS period, GDP growth varied considerably, from 0.3 percent in 2018 to 15 percent in 2014, due to volatility in commodity prices and disruption in the operations of three major mining and petroleum projects from a 7.5 magnitude earthquake in 2018. The country’s Human Development Index increased from 0.52 percent in 2010 to 0.544 in 2017, ranking 153rd among 189 countries in 2017. PNG rejoined the WBG’s Harmonized List of Fragile and conflict affected situation Countries (FCS) in FY17 and FY18. This list had excluded PNG since 2011. The World Bank Group’s (WBG) CPS had three pillars (or focus areas): (i) increased and more gender-equitable access to inclusive physical and financial infrastructure, (ii) gender equitable improvements in lives and livelihoods, and (iii) increasingly prudent management of revenues and benefits. IEG rated the CPS development outcome as moderately unsatisfactory, and the WBG performance as fair. The CLR provides three lessons: First, portfolio improvements require sustained engagement by all project teams, implementing agencies, and the Government, as well as stronger interagency coordination. Second, PNG’s institutional and social fragility places a premium on understanding political economy factors with a bearing on projects, and on monitoring and ensuring awareness of grievance redress mechanisms. Third, partnerships can help expand ASA, increase the WBG’s impact, and test new ideas.

Laying the Groundwork for Peace and Development: 5 Lessons from the Republic of Colombia

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Laying the Groundwork for Peace and Development
This brief captures the lessons from evaluating a World Bank's Peace and Development Project, implemented in the Republic of Colombia.This brief captures the lessons from evaluating a World Bank's Peace and Development Project, implemented in the Republic of Colombia.

Recent World Bank Experience with RRAs & Operational Programming in FCV Countries

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Stocktaking of Implementation of Recommendations from IEG Evaluations of Fragility, Conflict and Violence The purpose of this stocktaking report is to assess: i) the extent to which World Bank diagnostic work identified drivers of fragility and conflict and resilience; ii) the extent to which Bank strategies and operations in FCV countries have shifted from generic objectives to targeting drivers Show MoreStocktaking of Implementation of Recommendations from IEG Evaluations of Fragility, Conflict and Violence The purpose of this stocktaking report is to assess: i) the extent to which World Bank diagnostic work identified drivers of fragility and conflict and resilience; ii) the extent to which Bank strategies and operations in FCV countries have shifted from generic objectives to targeting drivers of fragility and conflict; and iii) the experience of the implementation of fragility-sensitive strategies to date.

Azerbaijan: Internally Displaced Persons Economic Development Project (PPAR)

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The well-being of internally displaced persons (IDPs) arose as a significant political and policy concern in the wake of the military conflict between Azerbaijan and neighboring Armenia. The conflict lasted from 1988 to 1994 when a cease-fire was declared (which continues to this day). The conflict resulted in the occupation of about 20 percent of Azerbaijan’s territory. Some 612,000 people, or Show MoreThe well-being of internally displaced persons (IDPs) arose as a significant political and policy concern in the wake of the military conflict between Azerbaijan and neighboring Armenia. The conflict lasted from 1988 to 1994 when a cease-fire was declared (which continues to this day). The conflict resulted in the occupation of about 20 percent of Azerbaijan’s territory. Some 612,000 people, or 15 percent of the Azerbaijani population, became internally displaced, making them one of the highest concentrations of IDPs per capita in the world. In addition, some 200,000 ethnic Azerbaijani returned to Azerbaijan from historically Azerbaijan-populated territories in Armenia. IDPs live in scattered communities throughout Azerbaijan; and although some have been able to integrate into mainstream Azerbaijani society, many still live in collective centers (public buildings, dormitories) and temporary shelters where conditions are harsh and amenities, such as access to clean water, adequate sanitation, and electricity are scarcer than among the non-IDP population. IDPs have few income-generating options and are highly dependent on state transfers and subsidies as their main source of income. This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) evaluates the performance of the Azerbaijan Internally Displaced Persons Economic Development Support Project, a community development fund project, and an additional financing that was added to the IDP-EDS to respond to additional demand for micro-projects. Ratings for the Internally Displaced Persons Economic Development Project are as follows: Outcome is moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome is low, Bank performance is moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance is moderately satisfactory. The main lessons to draw from the project assessment are the following: (i) Community micro-projects may not require high levels of community mobilization to be successful. (ii) Well-targeted micro-projects are likely to successfully improve basic living conditions in a community but may not be sufficient to make a difference in terms of creating economic opportunity and reducing poverty. (iii) Pursuing social integration can be a legitimate project objective, but it may require participatory processes that can generate positive spillover effects in the broader community. (iv) When World Bank and government objectives don’t coincide, project outcomes may not be easily achieved and investments can be at risk. (v) Women may be formally present in community committees but may not have a voice.