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Topic:Agriculture
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World Bank Support for Irrigation Service Delivery: Responding to New Challenges and Opportunities

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World Bank Support for Irrigation Service Delivery: Responding to New Challenges and Opportunities
This evaluation seeks to inform the World Bank’s efforts to support client countries to deliver sustainable irrigation and drainage services and achieve development impacts.This evaluation seeks to inform the World Bank’s efforts to support client countries to deliver sustainable irrigation and drainage services and achieve development impacts.

Vietnam: Water Resources Assistance Project (PPAR)

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When the Vietnam Water Resources Assistance Project (VWRAP) was designed, Vietnam was the world’s second largest rice exporter, but land and labor productivity was relatively low in comparison with neighboring countries. About half of cultivated land was irrigated. Ninety-six percent of the nation’s 7,600 dams were used for irrigation, but the hydraulic infrastructure was deteriorating, and dam Show MoreWhen the Vietnam Water Resources Assistance Project (VWRAP) was designed, Vietnam was the world’s second largest rice exporter, but land and labor productivity was relatively low in comparison with neighboring countries. About half of cultivated land was irrigated. Ninety-six percent of the nation’s 7,600 dams were used for irrigation, but the hydraulic infrastructure was deteriorating, and dam safety monitoring was considered inadequate. A major constraint to improving agricultural productivity was underperformance of the large rice-based flood irrigation systems, because of their outdated infrastructure and institutional design. The government of Vietnam had initiated a broad-based program to modernize agriculture and requested World Bank assistance to finance a project that would introduce innovative approaches to irrigation modernization and address dam safety issues. The project development objectives were to modernize and increase the productivity of Vietnamese agriculture, improve the management of water resources, and reduce dam safety risks.  Ratings for this project are as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) The Project’s close alignment with the government of Socialist Republic of Vietnam’s agriculture reform programs allowed it to pilot innovations that have had enduring policy impacts. (ii) Irrigation modernization is a complex learning process that requires time and a phased approach. (iii) Key results indicators and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) frameworks should be linked to development objectives and a clearly stated theory of change. (iv) For affordability reasons, water user fees may be insufficient to ensure the financial viability of water user groups; in that case, additional sources of funds including subsidies may need to be considered.

India: Tamil Nadu Irrigated Agriculture Modernization and Water-Bodies Restoration and Management Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report assesses the development effectiveness of India’s Tamil Nadu Irrigated Agriculture Modernization and Water-Bodies Restoration and Management (TN-IAMWARM) project, which was approved in 2007 and closed in 2015. The development objective of the project was to assist selected subbasin stakeholders in increasing the productivity of irrigated agriculture in Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report assesses the development effectiveness of India’s Tamil Nadu Irrigated Agriculture Modernization and Water-Bodies Restoration and Management (TN-IAMWARM) project, which was approved in 2007 and closed in 2015. The development objective of the project was to assist selected subbasin stakeholders in increasing the productivity of irrigated agriculture in the state of Tamil Nadu within an integrated water resources management framework. Ratings for this project are as follows: Outcomes was satisfactory, Risk to development was substantial, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) Irrigation project design that combines improvements in infrastructure with activities for improving agricultural and water use practices, agricultural inputs, and marketing support and linkages, can be a viable and effective approach for improving agricultural productivity and rural livelihoods. (ii) For the several line departments that are necessarily involved in multi-dimensional irrigation projects, the provision of appropriate training can play a pivotal role in fostering collaborative behavior among the departments, and to orient them towards the farmer beneficiary as the focal point of their services. (iii) The tone set by the project leadership is crucial for fostering and sustaining collaborative behavior across diverse implementing agencies. (iv) Including a water resource management component in an irrigation project can be a strategically important decision with long-term payoffs but may have to be supplemented by other projects to realize the potential for wider water management and climate smart agricultural policies. (v) Introduction of water budgeting concepts at the village or sub-basin level is a crucial first step to build on by gradually promoting the measurement of water use and agricultural water productivity.

IEG Work Program and Budget (FY20) and Indicative Plan (FY21-22)

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To maximize its relevance and value added for the World Bank Group (WBG), IEG will align its work program with WBG strategic priorities. IEG also aims to maintain a clear line of sight with the WBG mission and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as well as with commitments made in the IBRD and IFC Capital Packages and in the context of IDA replenishments. Furthermore, IEG will keep an Show MoreTo maximize its relevance and value added for the World Bank Group (WBG), IEG will align its work program with WBG strategic priorities. IEG also aims to maintain a clear line of sight with the WBG mission and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as well as with commitments made in the IBRD and IFC Capital Packages and in the context of IDA replenishments. Furthermore, IEG will keep an increased focus on outcomes, countries, clients, and beneficiaries in its work, and aim to foster a greater outcome orientation throughout the WBG. To achieve this strategic vision, IEG will focus its work program on the key development effectiveness questions that the institution and its clients are most concerned about. For each of these questions, we will strive to answer “why”, “how, “where”, “when”, and “for whom” specific interventions or programs have achieved results or not. By working more closely with operational units and other evaluation initiatives across the WBG, we will seek to significantly enhance IEG’s value added for the Board and WBG management. The work program will be anchored around a series of “streams”, building evidence over time on connected themes and trying to bridge between project, country, sector and strategic impact: Fragility, Conflict and Violence (FCV), Gender, Maximizing Finance for Development, Human Capital, Climate Change, Growth and Transformation. In addition, IEG will work along an ‘effectiveness’ cross-cutting stream, aimed at examining systemic issues in WBG effectiveness, as well as working towards building a stronger outcome focus for WBG operations and strategies.

Uzbekistan: Irrigation and Drainage Interventions to Support the Agriculture Sector (PPAR)

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This is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) of the World Bank Group on the Ferghana Valley Water Resources Management Project Phase I and the Uzbekistan Rural Enterprise Support Project Phase II in the Republic of Uzbekistan. This PPAR provides insights into how these two projects identified and addressed critical irrigation sector needs to Show MoreThis is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) of the World Bank Group on the Ferghana Valley Water Resources Management Project Phase I and the Uzbekistan Rural Enterprise Support Project Phase II in the Republic of Uzbekistan. This PPAR provides insights into how these two projects identified and addressed critical irrigation sector needs to improve the country’s irrigation and drainage systems and institutions, both at on-farm and inter-farm levels. The assessment pays special attention to the effectiveness and sustainability of capacity-building support provided to water consumer associations in both projects. Based on such assessment, the PPAR draws common lessons regarding the design and implementation of both projects, which were led by two separate World Bank Global Practices: Water, and Agriculture. The lessons from this PPAR feed into IEG’s forthcoming Evaluation on Strengthening Irrigation Management Models for Sustainable Service Delivery. Ratings for the Ferghana Valley Water Resources Management Project Phase I are as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was substantial, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Lessons from this project include: (1) Establishing adequate institutional arrangements is critical for sustainable use of improved agricultural technologies and practices such as land leveling and deep ripping. (ii) Sound selection criteria for identifying beneficiaries and areas are crucial for the farmers’ uptake and use of water-saving technologies. Ratings for the Rural Enterprise Support Project Phase II are as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Lessons include: (1) Coordinated and mutually reinforcing capacity building of financial institutions and farmers is crucial for establishing viable on-farm investments. (ii) Clear concept, measurement, and disclosure arrangements at project appraisal for sensitive data can ensure the availability of results at project completion.

Kenya: Agricultural Productivity Program (KAPP I and II)

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This is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) covers the Kenya Agricultural Productivity Program (KAPP) and Kenya Agricultural Productivity and Agribusiness Program (KAPAP). This report was commissioned to assess the development results and outcomes of the projects, and to document the experiences and lessons from the innovative institutional and policy reforms carried out to accelerate Show MoreThis is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) covers the Kenya Agricultural Productivity Program (KAPP) and Kenya Agricultural Productivity and Agribusiness Program (KAPAP). This report was commissioned to assess the development results and outcomes of the projects, and to document the experiences and lessons from the innovative institutional and policy reforms carried out to accelerate agricultural productivity growth and commercialization of smallholder agriculture in Kenya. The sequential implementation of two projects offered an opportunity to assess the extent to which certain institutional and policy reforms—to bring pluralism in the agricultural extension system and increase the performance of the agricultural research system—have contributed to crop-livestock productivity growth. It also allows evaluation of whether the changes introduced are likely to be sustained. This report covers two projects and ratings for each are as follows: Kenya Agricultural Productivity Project - Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was high, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Kenya Agricultural Productivity and Agribusiness Project – Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately unsatisfactory. The following lessons are drawn from the experience of the KAPP program: (i) Sustained government ownership and commitment are key to achieve complex and sectorwide institutional reforms. (ii) Effectiveness of institutional reforms and project outcomes requires sustained effort through continuous realignment with the changing context. (iii) Participatory and client-driven approaches with strong priority setting and regular evaluation are critical to stimulate and transform the agricultural research system. (iv) Provision of agricultural extension services to poor small-scale farmers as a public good requires a sustainable financing mechanism. (v) Public sector funding for extension services can be decoupled from public provision to strengthen complementarities and create space for private sector participation and improved service delivery. (vi) Scaling up the contracted service delivery model using the privatized extension system requires development of new public regulatory and quality control systems.

Paraguay CLR Review FY15-18

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Paraguay - Completion and Learning Review for the Period FY15-FY18 : IEG Review (English) Paraguay is an upper middle-income country with a population of 6.8 million (2017) and a GNI per capita (Atlas method) of USD 3,920 in 2017.The population is very young (60 percent under thirty years old) and the country is going through a rapid urbanization process from a low base. The country has over Show MoreParaguay - Completion and Learning Review for the Period FY15-FY18 : IEG Review (English) Paraguay is an upper middle-income country with a population of 6.8 million (2017) and a GNI per capita (Atlas method) of USD 3,920 in 2017.The population is very young (60 percent under thirty years old) and the country is going through a rapid urbanization process from a low base. The country has over the last 15 years achieved solid economic growth (average GDP growth of 4.7 percent per annum) and improved shared prosperity, spurred by abundant natural resources. The CPS for the World Bank Group (WBG) had three pillars (or focus areas): (i) resilience to risks and volatility; (ii) pro-poor delivery of public goods and services; and (iii) agricultural productivity and market integration. The Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) focus areas and objectives were broadly aligned with the government's National Development Plan (NDP) 2014-2030 and supported the NDP's higher level objective to reduce extreme poverty and foster income growth of the bottom 40 percent. The WBG's program components were well aligned with the NDP and addressed important development issues. The program was selective with three focus areas and eight objectives (some of which, however, contained multiple sub-objectives). The Bank demonstrated flexibility by shifting to knowledge services when the demand for IBRD lending dropped in the run-up to the election. However, the results framework had significant shortcomings which were not fully addressed at the PLR stage. The Completion and Learning Review (CLR) highlighted six lessons with which IEG concurs: (i) simplicity in project design helps speed up project implementation; (ii) investment projects may help to build governance and capacity; (iii) a realistic results framework is needed for timely achievement of objectives; (iv) a strong ASA program requires selectivity and government ownership; (v) RASs may help prioritize ASA demand and advance reforms during Paraguay's long project preparation cycles; and (vi) the flexibility afforded by programmatic ASA helps respond to changes in client needs.

Bolivia: Rural Alliances Project (PPAR)

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Around the turn of the millennium, based on lessons learned from projects in Bolivia and elsewhere, the World Bank began tinkering with the model of decentralized, community-driven development, trying to make it a more effective vehicle for boosting incomes generated by private sector productive activities in poor rural areas. The conviction was growing that past efforts to raise production Show MoreAround the turn of the millennium, based on lessons learned from projects in Bolivia and elsewhere, the World Bank began tinkering with the model of decentralized, community-driven development, trying to make it a more effective vehicle for boosting incomes generated by private sector productive activities in poor rural areas. The conviction was growing that past efforts to raise production incomes had underperformed because they had not, at the project design phase, paid enough attention to the potential of existing—and, more importantly, new—markets, nor had they developed ways to better link small-scale producers to those markets. The rural alliances model has now been applied to 18 operations in 10 countries throughout the Latin America and Caribbean Region. It seeks to promote links between buyers and organized groups of poor rural producers. The objective of the project, as stated in the development credit agreement, was to test a model to improve accessibility to markets for poor rural producers in pilot areas. Ratings for the project as follows: Outcomes was highly satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was negligible to low, Bank performance was highly satisfactory, and Borrower performance was highly satisfactory. IEG draws six lessons from the assessment: (i) In a country such as Bolivia, where the productivity of small-scale producers is low and there is substantial scope for increasing sales to the domestic market, the first step for a productive alliance is to boost the quantity and quality of the marketed surplus. (ii) Once producer groups are well organized, alliances can help producers obtain sustainable, postproject finance, enhancing the sustainability of the alliance arrangement. (iii) Project management can be greatly enhanced when strict quality controls are applied by independent parties, without political interference. (iv) Technical assistance works best when it is based on a flexible menu that accommodates the varied capacity building needs of different subprojects. (v) Agile disbursement of project funds enhances beneficiary commitment and increases the efficiency of subproject implementation. (vi) Having a knowledgeable national coordinator who helps design the project and provides long-term leadership greatly enhances the achievement of project objectives.

Albania: Secondary and Local Roads Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Secondary and Local Roads Project in Albania approved in 2008. The project development objective was to improve access to essential services and economic markets via the provision of all-weather roads for the resident population in the rural areas of Albania. This would be achieved through Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Secondary and Local Roads Project in Albania approved in 2008. The project development objective was to improve access to essential services and economic markets via the provision of all-weather roads for the resident population in the rural areas of Albania. This would be achieved through reconstructing selected secondary and local roads; building the competencies of the implementation agency Albanian Development Fund (ADF); building an asset management system for the secondary and local road networks; and improving capacity in the local community for maintenance. Ratings for the Secondary and Local Roads Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome as moderate, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) Implementing a successful multidonor programmatic approach to sector development requires the combination of government commitment with credible planning and common rules of engagement. (ii) Concentrating competencies within one agency may frustrate future decentralization of responsibilities. (iii) In the absence of need-based and credible linkages to resource allocation, a road asset management system may not get sufficient traction.

Peru: Sierra Rural Development Project (PPAR)

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This is the Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) for the Peru Sierra Rural Development Project (P079165). The assessment will contribute to learning from projects that seek to increase the integration of small-scale producers with market value chains. The loan agreement stated that the project development objective was to assist the Borrower in improving the assets and economic conditions Show MoreThis is the Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) for the Peru Sierra Rural Development Project (P079165). The assessment will contribute to learning from projects that seek to increase the integration of small-scale producers with market value chains. The loan agreement stated that the project development objective was to assist the Borrower in improving the assets and economic conditions of rural families in selected areas of the Borrower’s Apurímac, Ayacucho, Huancavelica, Junín, Huánuco, and Pasco regions, and strengthen government capacity to implement an integrated Sierra development strategy. Ratings for the Sierra Rural Development Project are as follows: Outcomes was satisfactory, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Quality of monitoring and evaluation was substantial. Four lessons from the experience of this assessment include: (i) Subproject investments by producer groups are more likely to be viable when the selection of subprojects is competitive and demand-driven, and it entails a substantial producer contribution to subproject cost. (ii) Building partnerships between actors in the market value chain is difficult and, in some circumstances, may not be feasible in the short term. (iii) Subproject investments by producer groups give a one-off boost to poor producer households without necessarily ensuring that they will continue to grow, or that the groups to which they belong will become stronger. (iv) Ensuring complementarity between subproject investments by producer groups and government-financed infrastructure and services, although hard to achieve, is important for maximizing impact.