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Romania: Hazard Risk Mitigation and Emergency Preparedness Project (PPAR)

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Romania’s Hazard Risk Mitigation and Emergency Preparedness (HRMEP) project, which was implemented between 2004 and 2012, was one of the World Bank’s first efforts to provide ex ante assistance to reduce or mitigate a country’s vulnerabilities to natural disasters related to floods, landslides, and earthquakes. The government sought the support of the World Bank to reduce vulnerability to these Show MoreRomania’s Hazard Risk Mitigation and Emergency Preparedness (HRMEP) project, which was implemented between 2004 and 2012, was one of the World Bank’s first efforts to provide ex ante assistance to reduce or mitigate a country’s vulnerabilities to natural disasters related to floods, landslides, and earthquakes. The government sought the support of the World Bank to reduce vulnerability to these and other natural disasters in a proactive manner, leading to the approval of the HRMEP. The project development objective (PDO) was to assist the government in reducing the environmental, social, and economic vulnerability to natural disasters and catastrophic mining accident spills of pollutants. The PDO also included how the objective would be achieved: (i) the strengthening of emergency management and risk financing capacity; (ii) earthquake risk reduction; (iii) flood and landslide risk reduction; and, (iv) risk reduction of mining accidents in the Tisza Basin in northwest Romania. Ratings for the Hazard Risk Emergency Preparedness Project are as follows: Outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, Risk to development outcome was significant, Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately unsatisfactory. Key lessons from the experience of the project include the following: (i) Depending on multiple, functionally independent implementing agencies for multisector projects can increase complexity without providing commensurate benefits. (ii) Multisectoral, multihazard efforts to reduce vulnerability to disasters may not offer synergies or economies of scope in the absence of clear logical links between activities and incentives for coordination by the institutions responsible for them. (iii) In a project designed to mitigate the risk of natural disasters, it is essential that sites critical for vulnerability reduction are both properly identified and systematically supported throughout the life of a project. (iv) When supporting structural retrofits, financing only the retrofitting and not the cost of returning buildings to functionality is likely to lead to problems with implementation.

The World Bank Group’s Approach to the Mobilization of Private Capital for Development - An IEG evaluation (Approach Paper)

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Transformations in the global economy and international finance have reinforced the view that private sector and private capital are key to economic development. Private capital is expected to play an increasingly important role given the relative high volume of financial resources at its disposal: an estimated US$15 trillion--excluding international bond markets—compared with ODA annual flows of Show MoreTransformations in the global economy and international finance have reinforced the view that private sector and private capital are key to economic development. Private capital is expected to play an increasingly important role given the relative high volume of financial resources at its disposal: an estimated US$15 trillion--excluding international bond markets—compared with ODA annual flows of just US$150 billion, international public finance flows of US$ 2 trillion and domestic resource mobilization of US$ 12 trillion. The Sustainable Development Goals identify global development priorities and highlight potential uses of private capital. This evaluation has two key objectives: (a) to gain a better understanding of the WBG’s approach to private capital mobilization (for e.g. instruments, engagements with investors and clients), its relevance for client countries and its contribution to development outcomes; (b) to identify the factors and enabling conditions that contribute to successful outcomes in mobilizing private capital for development. The evaluation will synthesize lessons of good practice to help the WBG enhance its future capital mobilization role.

Armenia: Achievements and Challenges in Improving Health Care Utilization – A Multiproject Evaluation of the World Bank Support to the Health System Modernization (2004-2016) (PPAR)

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This is the multiproject Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) for the Adaptable Program Loan (APL) Health System Modernization series (comprising a first phase P073974, a second phase P104467, and an additional financing P121728). It evaluates the extent to which the APL series achieved its intended outcomes and offers an opportunity to draw lessons from the long-term engagement of the Show MoreThis is the multiproject Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) for the Adaptable Program Loan (APL) Health System Modernization series (comprising a first phase P073974, a second phase P104467, and an additional financing P121728). It evaluates the extent to which the APL series achieved its intended outcomes and offers an opportunity to draw lessons from the long-term engagement of the World Bank in reform of the Armenia health sector aiming to inform and guide future investments in the health sector. The APL series was selected for an indepth field-based assessment due to its potential for learning from long-term engagement of the World Bank in health sector reforms; its clustering nature that allows coverage of multiple lending operation in the same country; and the relatively low coverage of previous IEG project evaluations in the country. Ratings for the Health System Modernization Project I are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was negligible to low, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Project II ratings are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from both projects include: (i) An approach that exploits synergies and lessons from other World Bank engagements in the health sector is important for undertaking complex reforms and helping the government stay the course of the reform. (ii) Macro and micro health policies need to be combined in a manner that the unintended consequences of policy changes are not overlooked. (iii) A shortened period between the approval dates of successive phases of an APL can limit the opportunity to incorporate lessons from previous phases into the design of new ones. (iv) In country contexts with strong social and cultural factors affecting uptake of health care services, supply-side and systemwide policy reforms need to be combined with demand-side interventions addressing the health-seeking behavior of patients. (v) While investments in infrastructure are not enough for health system modernization, they can help ensure acceptance of the proposed organizational changes involving strong stakeholders in the hospital sector.

Armenia CLR Review FY14-18

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Armenia is a lower middle-income country with a GNI per capita of $3,990 in 2017. It is a small and landlocked economy with borders closed with Azerbaijan and Turkey as a result of the unsettled Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. It faces significant trading costs while trade accounts for 75.7 percent of GDP (2016). As a result of the 2014/15 Russian crisis and the slump in metal export prices through Show MoreArmenia is a lower middle-income country with a GNI per capita of $3,990 in 2017. It is a small and landlocked economy with borders closed with Azerbaijan and Turkey as a result of the unsettled Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. It faces significant trading costs while trade accounts for 75.7 percent of GDP (2016). As a result of the 2014/15 Russian crisis and the slump in metal export prices through 2016, Armenia’s annual GDP growth declined from 4.3 percent during 2009- 13 to 3.6 percent during 2014-17, even though this growth reflects a sharp rebound to 7.5 percent in 2017. Slower growth and increased unemployment slowed progress in poverty reduction. Unemployment increased from 16.2 percent in 2013 to 18.3 percent in 2015, where it remained through 2017. After declining from 35.8 percent in 2010 to 30.0 percent in 2014, the headcount poverty ratio changed little through 2016. Income inequality (the Gini coefficient) also changed little, from 31.5 in 2013 to 32.5 in 2016. During the CPS period, broader measures in social conditions improved slightly. Armenia’s Human Development Index improved from 0.729 in 2010 (76th among 169 countries) to 0.755 in 2017 (83th among 189 countries). The World Bank Group’s Country Program Strategy (CPS) had three pillars, or focus areas, including the cross-cutting area on governance. These covered broadly the same areas as the previous CPS (FY09-13): (i) supporting competitiveness and job creation; (ii) improving efficiency and targeting of social services; and (iii) improving governance and decreasing corruption. The CPS was broadly aligned with the Government of Armenia (GoA) Development Strategy 2025 (ADS) adopted in 2014. The ADS sought to boost shared prosperity and reduce poverty through accelerated economic growth and job creation. World Bank Group’s support was also aligned with a number of GoA’s strategies and programs, including in the areas of strengthening competitiveness, enhancing social and environmental sustainability and improving the efficiency and transparency of public administration. The Performance and Learning Review (PLR) confirmed the relevance of the pillars and maintained most CPS objectives. PLR adjustments primarily reflected changes in country circumstances (stalled recovery and fiscal constraints).

An Evaluation of the World Bank Group’s Support to Rwanda (2009–17)

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This evaluation assesses the development effectiveness of the World Bank Group's country program in Rwanda over the period FY09-17. This evaluation assesses the development effectiveness of the World Bank Group's country program in Rwanda over the period FY09-17.

World Bank Group Support to Health Services: Achievements and Challenges

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World Bank Group Support to Health Services: Achievements and Challenges
Join us for a discussion about how the Word Bank Group can best support countries in moving towards universal health coverage in partnership with other actors, including the private sector, and in the context of the Human Capital Project.Join us for a discussion about how the Word Bank Group can best support countries in moving towards universal health coverage in partnership with other actors, including the private sector, and in the context of the Human Capital Project.

How to maximize impact of development policy financing in a rapidly changing country context: Lessons from Burkina Faso

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How to maximize impact of development policy financing in a rapidly changing country context
Successful reforms require close consideration of—and adaptation to—changing country contexts.Successful reforms require close consideration of—and adaptation to—changing country contexts.

A critical step in achieving universal health care: Improving public-private interactions to deliver health services

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Improving public private interactions to deliver health services
What IEG found when evaluating public-private interaction in the health sector of World Bank Group client countriesWhat IEG found when evaluating public-private interaction in the health sector of World Bank Group client countries

Collateral damage: the pitfalls of quantitative measures of success

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Collateral damage the pitfalls of quantitative measures of success
An evaluator’s perspective on "Weapons of Math Destruction"An evaluator’s perspective on "Weapons of Math Destruction"

Morocco CLR Review FY14-17

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This independent review of the World Bank Group’s Completion and Learning Review (CLR) covers the period of the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS), FY14-FY17. In addition to the CLR, this review is based on the original CPS approved by the Board on April 1, 2014 and the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) dated May 24,2016 which updated aspects of the original CPS. Morocco is a lower middle- Show MoreThis independent review of the World Bank Group’s Completion and Learning Review (CLR) covers the period of the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS), FY14-FY17. In addition to the CLR, this review is based on the original CPS approved by the Board on April 1, 2014 and the Performance and Learning Review (PLR) dated May 24,2016 which updated aspects of the original CPS. Morocco is a lower middle-income country with a GNI per capita of $2,860 in 2017. Steady economic growth from 2001 to 2013 helped close the income gap with Mediterranean Europe and reduce poverty from 15.3 percent to 4.8 percent and lower the Gini coefficient from 40.6 to 39.5 over the same period. The well-being of the poorest 40 percent of the population improved in absolute and relative terms.1 Morocco’s UNDP Human Development Index (HDI) score has been increasing gradually from 0.53 in 2010 to 0.67 in 2016, when the country’s ranked 123rd out of 188 countries. However, economic growth has slowed. Average annual GDP growth between 2014 and 2017 was only 3.1 percent despite investment exceeding 30 percent of GDP. Major development challenges have included a high rate of unemployment (around 10 percent), especially among the young (about 30 percent), and regional income disparities. Macroeconomic indicators have improved with lower fiscal and current account deficits and the public debt to GDP ratio stabilized at around 65 percent in 2016. The CPS had three focus areas: (i) promoting competitive and inclusive growth; (ii) building a green and resilient future; and (iii) strengthening governance and institutions for improved service delivery to all citizens.