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The Future of Carbon Markets for Climate Change Mitigation

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The Future of Carbon Markets for Climate Change Mitigation
Join us for a discussion about the future of carbon markets and carbon pricing solutions for global greenhouse gas emission reduction.Join us for a discussion about the future of carbon markets and carbon pricing solutions for global greenhouse gas emission reduction.

Zambia CLR Review FY13-17

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The review of Zambia’s completion and learning review (CLR) of the World Bank Group’s (WBG) country partnership strategy (CPS) covers the period FY13-FY17. The WBG’s CPS had three focus areas: (a) reducing poverty and vulnerability of the poor; (b) improving competitiveness and infrastructure for growth and employment; and (c) improving governance and strengthening economic management. Cross- Show MoreThe review of Zambia’s completion and learning review (CLR) of the World Bank Group’s (WBG) country partnership strategy (CPS) covers the period FY13-FY17. The WBG’s CPS had three focus areas: (a) reducing poverty and vulnerability of the poor; (b) improving competitiveness and infrastructure for growth and employment; and (c) improving governance and strengthening economic management. Cross-cutting elements included regional integration, strengthening institutional capacity, and addressing governance, gender, and climate change challenges. The CPS was aligned with the government’s sixth national development plan 2013-2016, which aimed to accelerate infrastructure development and economic diversification, promote rural investment, accelerate poverty reduction, and enhance human development. Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) rates the CPS development outcome moderately unsatisfactory. The CLRR agrees with the CLR lessons as specified: (a) collaboration and coordination among stakeholders is critical to improving portfolio quality, (b) the number and design of projects should consider implementation capacity of the country and supervision capacity of the WBG, (c) WBG projects should be reflected in, and aligned with, the government program, (d) the WB can be effective in strengthening institutions at the local level, and (e) incorporating accountability measures in project designs promotes good governance, transparency, and oversight.

Building the next generation of carbon markets for climate change mitigation

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Building the next generation of carbon markets for climate change mitigation
Countries, international organizations, donors, and the private sector have an opportunity to revitalize and strengthen carbon markets to support the greater emission reduction targets set by the Paris Agreement. Countries, international organizations, donors, and the private sector have an opportunity to revitalize and strengthen carbon markets to support the greater emission reduction targets set by the Paris Agreement.

Kenya: Agricultural Productivity Program (KAPP I and II)

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This is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) covers the Kenya Agricultural Productivity Program (KAPP) and Kenya Agricultural Productivity and Agribusiness Program (KAPAP). This report was commissioned to assess the development results and outcomes of the projects, and to document the experiences and lessons from the innovative institutional and policy reforms carried out to accelerate Show MoreThis is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) covers the Kenya Agricultural Productivity Program (KAPP) and Kenya Agricultural Productivity and Agribusiness Program (KAPAP). This report was commissioned to assess the development results and outcomes of the projects, and to document the experiences and lessons from the innovative institutional and policy reforms carried out to accelerate agricultural productivity growth and commercialization of smallholder agriculture in Kenya. The sequential implementation of two projects offered an opportunity to assess the extent to which certain institutional and policy reforms—to bring pluralism in the agricultural extension system and increase the performance of the agricultural research system—have contributed to crop-livestock productivity growth. It also allows evaluation of whether the changes introduced are likely to be sustained. This report covers two projects and ratings for each are as follows: Kenya Agricultural Productivity Project - Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was high, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Kenya Agricultural Productivity and Agribusiness Project – Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately unsatisfactory. The following lessons are drawn from the experience of the KAPP program: (i) Sustained government ownership and commitment are key to achieve complex and sectorwide institutional reforms. (ii) Effectiveness of institutional reforms and project outcomes requires sustained effort through continuous realignment with the changing context. (iii) Participatory and client-driven approaches with strong priority setting and regular evaluation are critical to stimulate and transform the agricultural research system. (iv) Provision of agricultural extension services to poor small-scale farmers as a public good requires a sustainable financing mechanism. (v) Public sector funding for extension services can be decoupled from public provision to strengthen complementarities and create space for private sector participation and improved service delivery. (vi) Scaling up the contracted service delivery model using the privatized extension system requires development of new public regulatory and quality control systems.

Paraguay CLR Review FY15-18

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Paraguay - Completion and Learning Review for the Period FY15-FY18 : IEG Review (English) Paraguay is an upper middle-income country with a population of 6.8 million (2017) and a GNI per capita (Atlas method) of USD 3,920 in 2017.The population is very young (60 percent under thirty years old) and the country is going through a rapid urbanization process from a low base. The country has over Show MoreParaguay - Completion and Learning Review for the Period FY15-FY18 : IEG Review (English) Paraguay is an upper middle-income country with a population of 6.8 million (2017) and a GNI per capita (Atlas method) of USD 3,920 in 2017.The population is very young (60 percent under thirty years old) and the country is going through a rapid urbanization process from a low base. The country has over the last 15 years achieved solid economic growth (average GDP growth of 4.7 percent per annum) and improved shared prosperity, spurred by abundant natural resources. The CPS for the World Bank Group (WBG) had three pillars (or focus areas): (i) resilience to risks and volatility; (ii) pro-poor delivery of public goods and services; and (iii) agricultural productivity and market integration. The Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) focus areas and objectives were broadly aligned with the government's National Development Plan (NDP) 2014-2030 and supported the NDP's higher level objective to reduce extreme poverty and foster income growth of the bottom 40 percent. The WBG's program components were well aligned with the NDP and addressed important development issues. The program was selective with three focus areas and eight objectives (some of which, however, contained multiple sub-objectives). The Bank demonstrated flexibility by shifting to knowledge services when the demand for IBRD lending dropped in the run-up to the election. However, the results framework had significant shortcomings which were not fully addressed at the PLR stage. The Completion and Learning Review (CLR) highlighted six lessons with which IEG concurs: (i) simplicity in project design helps speed up project implementation; (ii) investment projects may help to build governance and capacity; (iii) a realistic results framework is needed for timely achievement of objectives; (iv) a strong ASA program requires selectivity and government ownership; (v) RASs may help prioritize ASA demand and advance reforms during Paraguay's long project preparation cycles; and (vi) the flexibility afforded by programmatic ASA helps respond to changes in client needs.

A Return to the World Bank Group

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A Return to the World Bank Group
A new year, a new beginning! A new year, a new beginning!

North Macedonia: Regional and Local Roads Program Support Project (PPAR)

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This PPAR assesses the development effectiveness of the Regional and Local Roads Program Support project in North Macedonia, which was approved in 2008. The original development objective of the project, “to reduce cost of access to markets and services for communities served by regional and local roads,” was revised through a level I restructuring in 2013 “to reduce the cost of safe access to Show MoreThis PPAR assesses the development effectiveness of the Regional and Local Roads Program Support project in North Macedonia, which was approved in 2008. The original development objective of the project, “to reduce cost of access to markets and services for communities served by regional and local roads,” was revised through a level I restructuring in 2013 “to reduce the cost of safe access to markets and services for communities served by regional and local roads in North Macedonia’s territory, and to improve institutional capacity for investment planning and road safety.” The revised objective thus introduced the element of road safety to access, as well as institutional capacity for investment planning and road safety. Ratings for the Regional and Local Roads Program Support Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was substantial, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) Objective criteria developed and applied in a participatory manner can support a transparent framework to allocate investments and maintenance funds in the roads sector. (ii) The decentralization of responsibilities to local governments needs to be accompanied by the availability of commensurate resources and capacity building. (iii) Road safety and road design elements need to be jointly integrated into the project design and monitoring framework to mitigate risks to the effectiveness of road projects. (iv) Road project appraisal requires sufficient time and technical due diligence to ensure effective and timely project implementation.

Ethiopia: Urban Local Government Development Project (PPAR)

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This is the Project Performance Assessment Report for the Urban Local Government Development Project (ULGDP) in Ethiopia, which was approved by the World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors on May 29, 2008, and closed on December 31, 2014. The project’s development objective was to support improved performance in the planning, delivery, and sustained provision of priority municipal services and Show MoreThis is the Project Performance Assessment Report for the Urban Local Government Development Project (ULGDP) in Ethiopia, which was approved by the World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors on May 29, 2008, and closed on December 31, 2014. The project’s development objective was to support improved performance in the planning, delivery, and sustained provision of priority municipal services and infrastructure by urban local governments across the country. Ratings for Urban Local Government Development Project are as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was negligible to low, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) There is a trade‐off between scope and development outcomes in municipal operations that use performance‐based grants. It is critical to ensure that funding is sufficient to both incentivize behavior at the city level and offer a meaningful level of technical assistance. (ii) A one‐size‐fits‐all approach is ineffective in urban development projects that target multiple cities at various stages of development. (iii) Performance‐based grants should be considered as a preferred method of intermediating intergovernmental fiscal resources to urban local governments in the context of emerging urban systems. (iv) Promoting autonomous decision making at the city level although ensuring that operational rules and supervision are in place is a necessary condition to ensuring the intended use of funds in municipal finance projects. (v) Urban development projects need to balance targeting core city administrative functions as well as improving city management and planning competencies.

World Bank Group Support for the Reform of State-Owned Enterprises, 2007-2018: An IEG Evaluation (Approach Paper)

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State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) play a critical role in many developing and emerging economies. Governments use SOEs to pursue economic, social and political objectives. These can include such objectives as promoting growth in promising sectors or lagging regions, delivering services to the urban or rural poor or general population, addressing market failures such as natural monopoly, filling Show MoreState-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) play a critical role in many developing and emerging economies. Governments use SOEs to pursue economic, social and political objectives. These can include such objectives as promoting growth in promising sectors or lagging regions, delivering services to the urban or rural poor or general population, addressing market failures such as natural monopoly, filling perceived market gaps, financing investments whose size or risk make private investment unlikely, or addressing issues of heightened national priority or security. The evaluation will review the experience of the WBG supporting SOE reforms over the ten-year period 2008-2018. It will: (i) assess the ways in which WBG support to SOE reform achieved its stated objectives (including the extent to which those objectives were aligned with the strategies of the Bank Group, country, and relevant sectors); (ii) identify what worked (success factors and examples of good practice); and (iii) draw lessons from factors associated with successful and unsuccessful interventions and country engagements to inform the Bank Group’s future response to needs for SOE support.

Bolivia: Rural Alliances Project (PPAR)

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Around the turn of the millennium, based on lessons learned from projects in Bolivia and elsewhere, the World Bank began tinkering with the model of decentralized, community-driven development, trying to make it a more effective vehicle for boosting incomes generated by private sector productive activities in poor rural areas. The conviction was growing that past efforts to raise production Show MoreAround the turn of the millennium, based on lessons learned from projects in Bolivia and elsewhere, the World Bank began tinkering with the model of decentralized, community-driven development, trying to make it a more effective vehicle for boosting incomes generated by private sector productive activities in poor rural areas. The conviction was growing that past efforts to raise production incomes had underperformed because they had not, at the project design phase, paid enough attention to the potential of existing—and, more importantly, new—markets, nor had they developed ways to better link small-scale producers to those markets. The rural alliances model has now been applied to 18 operations in 10 countries throughout the Latin America and Caribbean Region. It seeks to promote links between buyers and organized groups of poor rural producers. The objective of the project, as stated in the development credit agreement, was to test a model to improve accessibility to markets for poor rural producers in pilot areas. Ratings for the project as follows: Outcomes was highly satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was negligible to low, Bank performance was highly satisfactory, and Borrower performance was highly satisfactory. IEG draws six lessons from the assessment: (i) In a country such as Bolivia, where the productivity of small-scale producers is low and there is substantial scope for increasing sales to the domestic market, the first step for a productive alliance is to boost the quantity and quality of the marketed surplus. (ii) Once producer groups are well organized, alliances can help producers obtain sustainable, postproject finance, enhancing the sustainability of the alliance arrangement. (iii) Project management can be greatly enhanced when strict quality controls are applied by independent parties, without political interference. (iv) Technical assistance works best when it is based on a flexible menu that accommodates the varied capacity building needs of different subprojects. (v) Agile disbursement of project funds enhances beneficiary commitment and increases the efficiency of subproject implementation. (vi) Having a knowledgeable national coordinator who helps design the project and provides long-term leadership greatly enhances the achievement of project objectives.