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Vietnam CLR Review FY12-16

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Vietnam is a lower middle income country with a GNI per capita income of $ 1,990 in 2015. During the review period, the country continued to experience rapid GDP growth averaging 5.8 percent, compared to 4.3 percent for the East Asia and Pacific region as a whole. The poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines (which had been 58 percent in 1993) dropped from 17.2 percent in 2012 to 13.5 Show MoreVietnam is a lower middle income country with a GNI per capita income of $ 1,990 in 2015. During the review period, the country continued to experience rapid GDP growth averaging 5.8 percent, compared to 4.3 percent for the East Asia and Pacific region as a whole. The poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines (which had been 58 percent in 1993) dropped from 17.2 percent in 2012 to 13.5 percent in 2014, with the remaining poverty being largely a rural issue (18.6 percent in 2014 versus 3.8 percent in urban areas), and mostly among ethnic minorities. Vietnam’s ranking on the UNDP Human Development Index also continued to improve – from 128th in 2011 to 115th in 2015 – compared to neighboring Lao PDR and Cambodia which are currently ranked around 140th place. However, economic inequality as measured by the GINI index is improving quite slowly – from 38.7 in 2012 to 37.6 in 2014. This is the first WBG Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) for Vietnam after it had become a lower middle-income country in 2009. The CPS was well aligned with the government’s objectives and stated development goals. It supported the implementation of the government’s Socio- Economic Development Strategy (SEDS, 2011-20) as this was operationalized in the Socio- Economic Development Plan (2011-15). The SEDS focused on structural reform, environmental sustainability, and the then emerging issues of macro-economic stability, with three core areas: promoting human resources and skills development, improving market institutions, and infrastructure development. At the time of the CPS, Vietnam had undergone a systemic transformation towards a more market oriented economy and with high economic growth and significant poverty reduction. Vietnam had, however, begun to find it more difficult to maintain high growth levels together with macroeconomic stability, and poverty was increasingly being concentrated in ethnic minority communities. The country’s aspirations to avoid the middle income trap and become a successful middle income country would require strengthening of the economy’s competitiveness, and environmental impacts of development needed to be better managed. In line with these concerns, the WBG through the CPS and the Progress Learning Review (PLR) focused on partnering with Vietnam to help the country achieve success as a middle income country with three focus areas: Competitiveness, Sustainability, and Opportunity. These important aspects - addressed in the CPS program - continue to be relevant, as shown in the 2016 Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD).

Senegal: Une décennie de soutien de la Banque mondiale au programme de nutrition du Sénégal (PPAR)

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Ce rapport évalue la performance de trois projets : (1) le Programme de Renforcement de la nutrition, (2) le Projet de Renforcement de la nutrition à l’appui de la Deuxième phase du Programme de Renforcement de la nutrition, et (3) le Projet d’Intervention rapide pour la Sécurité nutritionnelle et les Transferts en espèces axés sur les Enfants. Au début du nouveau millénaire, le Sénégal fait Show MoreCe rapport évalue la performance de trois projets : (1) le Programme de Renforcement de la nutrition, (2) le Projet de Renforcement de la nutrition à l’appui de la Deuxième phase du Programme de Renforcement de la nutrition, et (3) le Projet d’Intervention rapide pour la Sécurité nutritionnelle et les Transferts en espèces axés sur les Enfants. Au début du nouveau millénaire, le Sénégal fait face à un problème préoccupant de malnutrition. Parmi les enfants âgés de moins de cinq ans près d'un tiers (30 %) souffrait d’une malnutrition chronique (taille petite pour l'âge), 10 % de malnutrition aiguë (poids faible pour la taille), et 20 % d’une insuffisance pondérale (poids pour l'âge) ; chacun de ces niveaux étant classé très sévère par l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS). Les taux varient considérablement, les pauvres et les populations rurales, celles des zones du nord, du sud et du centre touchées de façon disproportionnée. La malnutrition contribue à la mortalité et à la morbidité des mères et des enfants, sape les chances d'accès des enfants à leur potentiel physique et intellectuel et réduit les opportunités de revenus pour les ménages, ainsi que la productivité globale et le développement économique. La maladie et une disponibilité alimentaire insuffisante sont les deux causes principales de cette malnutrition. Les facteurs sous-jacents sont la pauvreté, un accès insuffisant à une alimentation de qualité, des connaissances et comportements inadéquats pour promouvoir la santé des mères et des enfants et des services, en particulier de santé, d’approvisionnement en eau propre et d'assainissement, qui font défaut. En 2001, le Gouvernement du Sénégal a élaboré une nouvelle politique nationale de nutrition, apportant son soutien à un objectif sur dix ans, visant à améliorer la nutrition par l’adoption d’une approche multisectorielle communautaire. La politique s’est traduite par la mise en place du Programme de Renforcement de la nutrition de 10 ans (PRN), financé par l’État, la Banque mondiale, et, plus tard, d’autres partenaires techniques et financiers (PTF). L’État a également créé la Cellule de Lutte contre la malnutrition (CLM—une agence chargée de lutter contre la malnutrition), rattachée au cabinet du Premier ministre, responsable de la coordination de la mise en oeuvre de la politique, ainsi que de son évaluation.

Kosovo CLR Review FY12-16

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Kosovo is a lower middle income country with GNI per capita of $3,702 in 2016. Due to its recent turbulent past, Kosovo is considered a fragile and conflict affected country. About 30 percent of the population lived in poverty and about 10 percent lived in extreme poverty in 2011. Inequality remains high, but has been declining: the Gini coefficient has changed from 31.8 in 2009 to 26.7 in 2013. Show MoreKosovo is a lower middle income country with GNI per capita of $3,702 in 2016. Due to its recent turbulent past, Kosovo is considered a fragile and conflict affected country. About 30 percent of the population lived in poverty and about 10 percent lived in extreme poverty in 2011. Inequality remains high, but has been declining: the Gini coefficient has changed from 31.8 in 2009 to 26.7 in 2013. Employment rates are the lowest in Europe: 29.7 percent in 2012 and 28.0 in 2016. The country’s human development index (HDI), at 0.741 in 2015, is one of the lowest in the Balkan region, next to Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina, both ranked 85th among 188 countries. At the time of the CPS preparation, Kosovo’s key development challenges were to create employment of good quality and mitigate accumulated environmental damage. After the armed conflict ended in 1999, the economy grew at about 6 percent per year until 2009, but growth slowed down to 3.5 percent during 2009-2011 and to 3.2 percent during 2012-2016. An inadequate and inconsistent supply of energy remains the key bottleneck to development. Environmental issues have become more prominent as the mitigation cost rises and the country seeks to meet EU’s environmental standards.

Togo CLR Review FY08-17

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This is a validation of the Completion and Learning Review (CLR) for the World Bank Group’s (WBG) engagement in Togo covering two Interim Strategy Notes (ISNs) for the period, FY08-FY10; and FY12-13. In line with the CLR, IEG does not rate the overall development outcome and the WBG’s performance due to data limitations. After Togo became independent in 1960, income per capita almost doubled to Show MoreThis is a validation of the Completion and Learning Review (CLR) for the World Bank Group’s (WBG) engagement in Togo covering two Interim Strategy Notes (ISNs) for the period, FY08-FY10; and FY12-13. In line with the CLR, IEG does not rate the overall development outcome and the WBG’s performance due to data limitations. After Togo became independent in 1960, income per capita almost doubled to reach $534 in 1980, driven by open and market oriented policies, a boom in phosphate prices and efforts towards a more effective public administration. However, these gains were reversed during the next two decades. In the 1980s, the country followed a more inward looking economic policy and, during the 1990s, it entered a period of political tension and economic instability. Togo fell into internal and external debt service arrears including with the World Bank. Political stability returned gradually beginning in the mid-2000s and the international development community returned. Economic growth during the last decade has averaged four percent. Despite a solid growth performance, poverty declined only slightly, from 61.7 percent in 2006 to 55.1 percent in 2015. Income per capita is yet to reach the level the country had achieved in 1980. Togo’s ranking in the Human Development Index has fallen from 95th out of 124 countries in 1980 to 166th out of 187 countries in 2013. Togo recently experienced negative macroeconomic developments that brought the share of public debt over GDP from 32 percent in 2010 to 80.8 percent in 2016 financed by both domestic and external borrowings. Successful efforts at increasing public revenues from 18.8 percent of GDP in 2013 to 21.0 percent in 2015 were not enough to cover fast-growing public investments on infrastructure. Efforts at bringing the fiscal accounts under control are underway. The Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved on May 5, 2017, a new three-year arrangement for Togo under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) for SDR176.16 million to support the country’s economic and financial reforms.

Mauritius CLR Review FY07-15

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Mauritius is a small country of about 1.3 million people which evolved from a poor sugar economy at the time of independence in 1968 into a successful upper middle-income country today largely through trade-led development. While absolute poverty declined from 8.5 percent in 2007 to 6.9 percent in 2012, inequality has increased and the Gini coefficient rose from 0.34 to 0.37. Good economic Show MoreMauritius is a small country of about 1.3 million people which evolved from a poor sugar economy at the time of independence in 1968 into a successful upper middle-income country today largely through trade-led development. While absolute poverty declined from 8.5 percent in 2007 to 6.9 percent in 2012, inequality has increased and the Gini coefficient rose from 0.34 to 0.37. Good economic management has helped the country successfully weather several adverse external developments, but could not prevent a decline in GDP growth rates in recent years. Because good economic growth and rapid progress in human development went hand in hand in the past, both the government plans and the WBG's Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) agreed that the lowered growth rate was the country's main challenge. Hence, the main theme of the WBG strategy was to increase the competitiveness of the economy while protecting the vulnerable. The CPS was organized around the government's four focus areas (or pillars) of reform: (1) fiscal consolidation and improved public sector efficiency; (2) improving trade competitiveness; (3) improving the investment climate; and (4) democratizing the economy through participation, social inclusion and sustainability. At first, there was good synergy between the government reform plans and the CPS. However, the coalition government that came to power after 2010 slowed down the implementation of the reform agenda. The WBG was slow to recognize this and, hence, the WBG program was no longer as well aligned with the government agenda as in earlier years. On balance, IEG rates the overall development outcome as moderately satisfactory.

Higher Education for Development: An Evaluation of the World Bank Group's Support

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This evaluation assesses the World Bank Group's support for higher education and seeks to identify how the World Bank Group can adapt and align its support for higher education with its 2013 "twin goals" strategy. This evaluation assesses the World Bank Group's support for higher education and seeks to identify how the World Bank Group can adapt and align its support for higher education with its 2013 "twin goals" strategy.

Peru CLR Review FY12-16

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Peru is a Middle-Income Country (MIC) with a GNI per capita of US$6,130 in 2015. During the review period, the country’s average GDP growth was 4.4 percent, compared to 1.5 percent in the LAC region. Peru has been successful in reducing poverty. For example, national poverty declined from 59 percent in 2004 to 22 percent in 2015. Inequality also declined per the Gini index from 52.1 in 2004 to 44 Show MorePeru is a Middle-Income Country (MIC) with a GNI per capita of US$6,130 in 2015. During the review period, the country’s average GDP growth was 4.4 percent, compared to 1.5 percent in the LAC region. Peru has been successful in reducing poverty. For example, national poverty declined from 59 percent in 2004 to 22 percent in 2015. Inequality also declined per the Gini index from 52.1 in 2004 to 44.4 in 2015. However, there are governance challenges at the subnational level due to the unfinished decentralization agenda. ed on overcoming social gaps and enhancing productivity, while maintaining a sound macro framework. The World Bank Group (WBG) Country Partnership Strategy (CPS), which covered the period FY12-16, was prepared within this context. The CPS had four strategic objectives (or focus areas): (i) increased access and quality of social services for the poor; (ii) connecting the poor to services and markets; (iii) sustainable growth and productivity; and (iv) improved public sector performance for greater inclusion. The WBG supported these areas using a wide-range of instruments, including investment operations, policy lending, and analytical work and advisory services. The CPS’s four strategic objectives reflected the Government’s development goals. At mid-term of the CPS, the government shifted its priorities towards productivity and competitiveness.

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Ukraine - Development of State Statistics System for Monitoring Social and Economic Transformation (devstat) Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the Development of State Statistics System for Monitoring Social and Economic Transformation (DEVSTAT) project in Ukraine. This project was one of two pilot projects (along with Burkina Faso) supported under the Statistics Capacity Building Program (STATCAP). DEVSTAT was approved by the World Bank on March 25, 2004. The original closing Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the Development of State Statistics System for Monitoring Social and Economic Transformation (DEVSTAT) project in Ukraine. This project was one of two pilot projects (along with Burkina Faso) supported under the Statistics Capacity Building Program (STATCAP). DEVSTAT was approved by the World Bank on March 25, 2004. The original closing date of the project, December 31, 2009, was extended three times due to delays in the ratification of the loan agreement, delays in the procurement of advanced information communication technology, and to allow for the national rollout of the integrated statistical data processing system (ISDPS). The project closed on December 31, 2013. Total project cost was estimated to be $37.94 million, of which $32 million would be financed by the World Bank and $5.94 million by borrower contributions. Additional Financing of $10 million was granted in December 2012, at which time the statement of objectives was formally revised. The revised objective aligned the statements of objectives in the loan agreement and the project appraisal document. Actual total cost at project closure was $45.19 million, financed by a loan of $42 million from the World Bank and a contribution of $3.19 million from the borrower. The objective of this project was “to build a sustainable state statistical system, which would efficiently and effectively collect, process, and disseminate accurate, timely, coherent, and trustworthy statistical data concerning the economy and social conditions of the borrower required by the government, business, and society to make informed decisions, and encompassing a comprehensive reform of the State Statistical System of Ukraine, primarily through the modernization of the State Statistical Committee.”

Lao People’s Democratic Republic - Second Education Development Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses a primary education project in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the Second Education Development Project, commonly known as EDP2. This program was financed by the World Bank and the government of Australia. The project was approved in April 2004, and closed in August 2013. The World Bank’s total contribution was $28.2 million. This Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses a primary education project in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the Second Education Development Project, commonly known as EDP2. This program was financed by the World Bank and the government of Australia. The project was approved in April 2004, and closed in August 2013. The World Bank’s total contribution was $28.2 million. This report was prepared by Erik Bloom, Senior Economist, IEG and Inthansone Phetsering, consultant. The findings are based on an extensive review of the literature, project reports, and a field visit, December 4–18, 2016. This mission included a field visit to Oudamxay province. The mission talked to current and retired staff involved in the project’s implementation in the Ministry of Education and Sports and with staff from the World Bank and the government of Australia. The mission also met with education officials at the province and district levels in Oudamxay province. The mission also visited five remote schools in two districts. As much as possible, the PPAR cites publically available documents, and when appropriate, it refers to interviews and internal documents. The project’s credit agreement states the project’s development objective as: To assist the Borrower to achieve universal completion of primary education by implementing the education policies and reform actions set forth in its Letter of Education Policy, including increasing access to, and the completion of, primary school in the project provinces, improving the quality of access to, and the completion of, primary school in the project provinces, improving the quality of education, and building the policy development and management capacity of its Ministry of Education.