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Arab Republic of Egypt: Second Pollution Abatement Project (Project Performance Assessment Report)

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Egypt’s rapid population growth (from 36 million in 1973 to 91.5 million in 2015), combined with its economic development and industrialization policies and weak environmental management, have resulted in widespread and severe pollution of Egypt’s critical air, water, and soil resources. In recent decades, the government of Egypt has increasingly attempted to address the pollution threats to its Show MoreEgypt’s rapid population growth (from 36 million in 1973 to 91.5 million in 2015), combined with its economic development and industrialization policies and weak environmental management, have resulted in widespread and severe pollution of Egypt’s critical air, water, and soil resources. In recent decades, the government of Egypt has increasingly attempted to address the pollution threats to its public health and environmental conditions, seeking support for its efforts from international financing institutions and bilateral donors. Ratings for the Second Pollution Abatement Project in Egypt were as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, risk to development was significant, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from the report included: (i) Though the use of concessionary financing can be effective in triggering private investments in pollution abatement, operations that rely on donor funding for such financing risk not being scaled up to the point where they can have a major impact on desired pollution outcomes, because of the inherent limitations on the availability of donor funding. (ii) The “carrot and stick” approach employed by the EPAP II model suggests that the appropriate use of financial incentives (concessionary financing) backed by potential administrative/legal threats (environmental enforcement actions) can promote industrial compliance in a country where enforcement strategies alone have been insufficient to generate compliance, especially in the early stages of tackling national pollution. (iii) The use of continuous environmental monitoring systems at industrial sites represents best practice for pollution control projects. (iv) With the uncertainties surrounding the carbon finance market, World Bank operations involving carbon finance–linked projects should undergo careful preparation, delinking implementation schedules if necessary, to avoid risks that may occur during processing. (v) Ensuring careful alignment between project objective and project design is critical to avoiding confusion in determining whether a project has achieved its goals. (vi) Managed carefully, the World Bank’s role in organizing collaboration among its development partners can significantly enhance its ability to scale up its operations in the environmental management sector. (vi) Environmental operations that rely on a credit line mechanism may be limited in their ability to target the most serious pollution issues because of requirements for creditworthiness.

Tax Revenue Mobilization - Lessons from World Bank Group Support for Tax Reform

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This learning note reviews existing IEG evaluative evidence on the Bank Group’s support to tax policy and administration reform produced by the Independent Evaluation Group over FY2005-15. It identifies the drivers of performance as well as lessons to inform the future work of the Bank Group. This learning note reviews existing IEG evaluative evidence on the Bank Group’s support to tax policy and administration reform produced by the Independent Evaluation Group over FY2005-15. It identifies the drivers of performance as well as lessons to inform the future work of the Bank Group.

Cameroon CLR Review FY10-14

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Cameroon is a lower middle income, resource-rich country with large potential. Due to its location, the country is the gateway to the economies of Central Africa and plays a central role in the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). The Bank's strategy was well aligned with country challenges and the government's own objectives, with the emphasis of the CAS program on governance Show MoreCameroon is a lower middle income, resource-rich country with large potential. Due to its location, the country is the gateway to the economies of Central Africa and plays a central role in the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). The Bank's strategy was well aligned with country challenges and the government's own objectives, with the emphasis of the CAS program on governance, competitiveness, and public sector services. The program generally did address key challenges for the country, and was largely unchanged in the CAS Progress Report (CASPR), at which time the CAS period was extended to include FY14, but some indicators were dropped and others were weakened primarily in terms of time of delivery. The program aligned quite well to the twin goals, but the poverty dimension of the WBG program could have been even stronger, including the attention to inclusion – although with a poverty rate of 37.5 percent (2014) there is strong overlap between poverty and shared prosperity issues. The CAS program was reasonably well designed in light of country requirements and (significant) constraints, and proved to be quite stable with all nine objectives maintained in the CASPR. It addressed appropriate and important areas, and was designed for gradual and quite modest improvements. The CASPR addressed an important stepping-up of supervision and implementation support,and also a stronger focus on a few selected operations going forward. IEG draws three main lessons from this CLR: First, programs addressing governance need to provide a mix of interventions commensurate with the nature of the objectives, be structured realistically to conditions on the ground and Bank instruments. Second, indicators need to be designed keeping in mind the ability to monitor progress and to measure and assess end results. Third, Bank country program documents including CLRs need to pay clear attention where there are (as for Cameroon) significant indications of broader underlying fiduciary and governance issues. IEG also agrees with the following lessons from the CLR: Centralized approaches to strengthening governance need to be complemented with decentralized and sector-based approaches. The impact of investment lending is much higher when it is accompanied by sector policy and institutional reform which is possible only when government ownership is strong.

Pacific Island Countries CLR Review FY11-17

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This is a summary of six CLR reviews covering the World Bank Group (WBG) programs for the Pacific Island Countries (PICs) of Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Samoa, Tonga, and Tuvalu. The summary is based on IEG’s individual country assessments of the completion and learning reviews prepared for each country. During the period under review, each country prepared a stand-alone Country Show MoreThis is a summary of six CLR reviews covering the World Bank Group (WBG) programs for the Pacific Island Countries (PICs) of Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Samoa, Tonga, and Tuvalu. The summary is based on IEG’s individual country assessments of the completion and learning reviews prepared for each country. During the period under review, each country prepared a stand-alone Country Assistance/Partnership Strategy (CAS/CPS), in contrast to previous engagements that were done under an umbrella regional strategy for the Pacific Islands. Except for Tuvalu’s country program, all CPSs were joint programs between the Bank and IFC. The assessments are based on the original CPSs, since no Performance and Learning Reviews (PLRs) were undertaken for any of the countries. These countries have populations ranging from 10,000 (Tuvalu) to over 200,000 (Samoa)— Tuvalu is the smallest WBG member country. They are among the most remote and geographically dispersed countries in the world, and range from low middle income (Kiribati, US$3,390 GNI per capita in current dollars) to upper middle income (Tuvalu, US$6,120 GNI per capita in current dollars). Some of them joined the WBG as recently as 2010 (Tuvalu). The high cost of operating in these small, remote countries, and limited resources from IDA, constrained the World Bank Group to engage with them at the regional level or through multi-country platforms until 2008, when the governments of Australia and New Zealand decided to enter into funding partnerships with the WBG. These partnerships—combined with significant increases in IDA disaster risk management and climate change—gave the WBG the capacity to operate at scale in the Pacific Island Countries. For most of the countries—except Samoa and Tonga—this program was the first direct engagement with the WBG. All programs were financed by IDA and trust-funds, and some of the countries (Marshall Islands, Micronesia, and Tuvalu) had to be granted an exception for small islands to qualify for IDA funds in light of their high per capita income.

Ghana: Agriculture Development Policy Operation, Phase I–IV (Project Performance Assessment Report)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the outcome and sustainability of two consecutive World Bank–financed programmatic series of DPOs in the agriculture sector in Ghana with a total disbursement of US$ 157 million. Objectives of these two projects include: (i) to increase the contribution of agriculture to growth and poverty reduction; (ii) to improve the management of soil Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the outcome and sustainability of two consecutive World Bank–financed programmatic series of DPOs in the agriculture sector in Ghana with a total disbursement of US$ 157 million. Objectives of these two projects include: (i) to increase the contribution of agriculture to growth and poverty reduction; (ii) to improve the management of soil and water resources; (iii) to enhance productivity and market access among farmers; and (ii) to improve agriculture sector management. Ratings for the First Agriculture Development Policy Operation Series were as follows: outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, risk to development outcome was significant, World Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and borrower performance was moderately unsatisfactory. These ratings differ from the ICR in all four areas. Ratings for the Second Agriculture Development Policy Operation Series were: outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, risk to development outcome was significant, World Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and borrower performance was moderately unsatisfactory. All ratings except for risk to development are different from the ICR. Lessons include: (i) In a sector such as agriculture, in which responsibilities are fragmented across many different directorates and agencies, impact could be heightened by broadening engagement beyond key counterparts in the leading ministry to other directorates charged with delivering program results. (ii) Rigorous assessment of government commitment and ownership is needed not only at the design stage but throughout implementation. (iii) Potential synergies between sector and general budget support operations could be enhanced by more effective coordination and monitoring and feedback between the two. (iv) Defining DPO series objectives in concrete and measurable terms and scaling ambition down to what the actions in the operations can realistically be expected to influence can improve the demonstration of impact and enhance attribution.

Peru: Fiscal Management and Competitiveness Programmatic Development Policy Loans (Project Performance Assessment Report)

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This PPAR evaluates the programmatic series of Peru FMCDPL I–IV and supplemental financing to FMCDPL II. The FMCDPL series aimed to support the government’s reform program to improve the functioning of Peru’s public sector institutions and business environment. The support program rested on two pillars: (i) improve the efficiency and quality of fiscal management and (ii) enhance competitiveness. Show MoreThis PPAR evaluates the programmatic series of Peru FMCDPL I–IV and supplemental financing to FMCDPL II. The FMCDPL series aimed to support the government’s reform program to improve the functioning of Peru’s public sector institutions and business environment. The support program rested on two pillars: (i) improve the efficiency and quality of fiscal management and (ii) enhance competitiveness. Under these, the FMCDPL program supported nine specific policy objectives: Efficiency and quality of fiscal management: (i) increase sustainability and transparency of fiscal policy, (ii) make tax system more neutral and stable, (iii) strengthen budget reporting and planning, (iv) increase equity in intergovernmental transfers, and (v) improve efficiency and impact of public spending. Competitiveness: (vi) make public sector processes more transparent, accessible, and agile; (vii) expand and deepen international trade; (viii) reduce transaction costs for the private sector to enter, operate in, and exit markets; and (ix) promote sustainable financial deepening. The overall outcome is rated moderately satisfactory, reflecting substantial relevance of the objectives and the design and partial achievement of most objectives under the two pillars. Key lessons include: (i) When strong ownership of the client is demonstrated, a programmatic series of operations can offer the World Bank and its client win-win solutions. (ii) For the World Bank, a multiyear program of support gives it a chance to pursue an extended and coherent analytical agenda that may not be feasible in multiple one-off operations. (iii) To the client, the programmatic series offers a real-time opportunity to learn about the reforms (including both the costs and benefits) and to build on the momentum of initial success. (iv) In the case of Peru, despite all the positive steps the government has taken to enhance efficiency in the allocation of fiscal resources, a pressing need to rationalize the fiduciary and regulatory norms and the multiplicity of control and auditing instances remains. (v) The application of the DDO in this context to the second loan and its supplement illustrated the World Bank’s willingness and ability to support Peru at a time of considerable market uncertainty and, arguably, to help limit contagion.

Women's Empowerment in Rural Community-Driven Development Projects

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women-empowerment-in-rural-cdd-, ieg learning product
This report analyzes gender features of long-standing World Bank rural community-driven development (CDD) projects, their response to women’s specific constraints, and their impacts on women’s economic, political, and social empowerment.This report analyzes gender features of long-standing World Bank rural community-driven development (CDD) projects, their response to women’s specific constraints, and their impacts on women’s economic, political, and social empowerment.

Senegal: A Decade of World Bank Support to Senegal’s Nutrition Program

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This report assesses the performance of three projects: (1) the Nutrition Enhancement Program, (2) the Nutrition Enhancement Project in Support of the Second Phase of the Nutrition Enhancement Program, and (3) the Rapid Response Child-Focused Social Cash Transfer and Nutrition Security Project. At the start of the new millennium, malnutrition in Senegal was of great concern. Malnutrition Show MoreThis report assesses the performance of three projects: (1) the Nutrition Enhancement Program, (2) the Nutrition Enhancement Project in Support of the Second Phase of the Nutrition Enhancement Program, and (3) the Rapid Response Child-Focused Social Cash Transfer and Nutrition Security Project. At the start of the new millennium, malnutrition in Senegal was of great concern. Malnutrition contributes to child and maternal mortality and morbidity, undermines children’s prospects of reaching their physical and intellectual potential, and undercuts income-earning potential for households and overall productivity and economic development. Its two principal causes are inadequate food intake and illness. Underlying factors are poverty; inadequate access to quality food; inadequate knowledge and behaviors favoring the health of mothers and children; and inadequate services, especially health, clean water, and sanitation. In 2001, the government of Senegal issued a new nutrition policy, supporting a 10-year goal to improve nutrition through a community-based, multisectoral approach. The policy was translated into the 10-year Nutrition Enhancement Program (NEP), financed by the government of Senegal, the World Bank, and eventually others. The government of Senegal also created the Cellule de Lutte contre la Malnutrition (Agency in Charge of the Fight against Malnutrition; CLM), attached to the prime minister’s office, responsible for policy oversight and evaluation.

Colombia: Public and Private Paths to Sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation in Colombia (1999-2011) (Project Performance Assessment Report)

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Water supply and sanitation in Colombia have improved in recent decades. Between 1990 and 2010, access to improved sanitation increased from 67 percent to 82 percent, and access to improved water sources increased from 89 percent to 94 percent (WHO/UNICEF 2010), but coverage in rural areas still lags behind. The three projects covered by this assessment—the Cartagena Water Supply, Sewerage, and Show MoreWater supply and sanitation in Colombia have improved in recent decades. Between 1990 and 2010, access to improved sanitation increased from 67 percent to 82 percent, and access to improved water sources increased from 89 percent to 94 percent (WHO/UNICEF 2010), but coverage in rural areas still lags behind. The three projects covered by this assessment—the Cartagena Water Supply, Sewerage, and Environmental Management Project (the Cartagena Project); the Water Sector Reform Assistance Project (WSRAP); and the Water and Sanitation Sector Support Project (WSSSP)—are among the second generation of water supply and sanitation (WSS) projects that benefited from the lessons learned in the 1990s from Bank-supported WSS projects in Colombia. The overall project outcome, based on relevance, efficacy, and efficiency, is rated satisfactory. Relevance of the objectives and design are both rated substantial. Achievement of two objectives was rated high, and one was rated substantial, since all objectives were achieved or surpassed. Efficiency is rated substantial, and risks to development outcome are rated negligible, since ACUACAR had proven to be an efficient and sustainable mixed-enterprise (public-private) model that survived numerous shifts in political administrations. Both Bank and borrower performances are rated satisfactory.

Evaluation of IFC's Approach to Engaging Clients for Increased Development Impact (Approach Paper)

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The International Finance Corporation’s (IFC) mandate is to promote economic development by supporting the growth of productive private enterprise in its developing member countries--particularly in less developed and higher risk areas--in partnership with private sector clients. IFC’s business model is to work with private sector clients as a means to achieve its mandate of economic development Show MoreThe International Finance Corporation’s (IFC) mandate is to promote economic development by supporting the growth of productive private enterprise in its developing member countries--particularly in less developed and higher risk areas--in partnership with private sector clients. IFC’s business model is to work with private sector clients as a means to achieve its mandate of economic development. In pursuing this mandate, its strategy has evolved and, from the early 2000s, IFC has aimed to transform itself from a transactions-focused to a client-centered institution. The rationale for this shift to a client focus was to improve IFC’s development outcomes. More than a decade after the emergence of IFC’s more strategic approach to client engagement, this evaluation will assess the extent to which IFC’s approach to strategic client engagement have been implemented, enhanced these clients’ project outcomes and helped IFC improve its own development impact. The purpose is to derive appropriate lessons from experience and inform future efforts to improve IFC’s approach to client engagement in given country and client contexts as a means to enhance its development impact. The report is expected to build on internal diagnostics regarding IFC’s business model, which began in March 2016, and would allow IFC to fine tune its strategy related to the client engagement approach. The evaluation is undertaken as part of the second objective of IEG’s results framework regarding generating independent evaluation evidence to assess the early implementation experience of the 2013 WBG Strategy.