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Mali - Rural Community Development Project

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This is a project performance review of the Rural Community Development Project (PACR) financed by the International Development Association (IDA) and implemented between 2005 and 2014 across four regions of Mali. Original financing was anticipated to be US$64 million including a US$60 million IDA credit and US$4 million borrower contribution. Actual costs were US$71.2 million because of two Show MoreThis is a project performance review of the Rural Community Development Project (PACR) financed by the International Development Association (IDA) and implemented between 2005 and 2014 across four regions of Mali. Original financing was anticipated to be US$64 million including a US$60 million IDA credit and US$4 million borrower contribution. Actual costs were US$71.2 million because of two additional financings. The project sought to improve the living conditions of rural communities by providing access to basic socioeconomic services and a sustainable increase in income, while promoting improved natural resource management practices. Designed at a time when Mali had just begun to operationalize its decentralization policy, by putting national and local structures in place, the project represents the World Bank’s first large-scale investment in support of this aim. This assessment was based on a review of World Bank project documentation, supplemented by several sources of primary and secondary data collected during a field mission to Mali conducted between May 8 and May 30, 2017. Secondary data collected included the original Management Information System, 2009 census data, and fiscal transfers between the National Agency for Communal and Territorial Investments (ANICT) and all project (and nonproject communes). The data for the period 2001 to 2010 was obtained from Grinnell College, and for the period 2011, 2012–17, from ANICT (there were no transfers in 2012 because of the coup d’état that occurred that year). Primary data collection gathered the perceptions of the affected commune councils and mayors, service users and service providers, and the cooperatives that received grants for private productive assets. Specifically, the assessment conducted 12 commune council group interviews and 36 cooperative group interviews. In addition, the assessment collected data on distance and population to test the project’s service delivery metrics and targets. The project assessment will provide inputs into the Independent Evaluation Group’s (IEG’s) Fiscal Decentralization and Subnational Finance and Citizen Engagement Macroevaluations.

PPAR Improving Basic Health : The World Bank’s Experience in the Philippines

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses two World Bank health projects in the Philippines: the National Sector Support for Health Reform Project and the Second Women’s Health and Safe Motherhood Project. The National Sector Support Project was approved in June 2006 and closed in March 2012, nine months after the original date of June 2011. The Second Women’s Health Project was Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses two World Bank health projects in the Philippines: the National Sector Support for Health Reform Project and the Second Women’s Health and Safe Motherhood Project. The National Sector Support Project was approved in June 2006 and closed in March 2012, nine months after the original date of June 2011. The Second Women’s Health Project was approved in April 2005 and closed in June 2013, 12 months after the original date of June 2012. For both projects, the extensions were to permit the projects additional time to finish their activities. These projects were selected for a field-based assessment for several reasons. First, both projects represented major efforts to reform the health sector in the Philippines. Second, the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) had previously recommended both projects for further evaluation during the Implementation Completion and Results Report (ICR) review process to validate ratings. Third, the PPAR will contribute to IEG’s ongoing evaluation on the World Bank’s Support for Basic Health Services. The Philippines is classified as a lower middle-income country, with a gross national income of $3,550 per capita and an estimated population of 101.6 million in 2015. In recent years, economic growth has increased substantially between 2012 and 2016, the longest period of sustained economic growth in recent history. However, poverty and inequality remain high and persistent. At the time of both projects’ appraisal, the Philippines had seen low increases of health outcomes that were among the slowest in the region. The Philippines has a double burden of disease—both from traditional public health issues and emerging noncommunicable diseases. Health equity was a major challenge, in terms of access and health outcomes, and the high cost of healthcare contributed to impoverishment. The Philippines has long pursued health reform, built around improving equity with demand-based finance through a combination of public and private health services.

Mobile Metropolises: Urban Transport Matters

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Mobile Metropolises: Urban Transport Matters
This evaluation assesses the World Bank Group’s effectiveness in supporting countries’ efforts to achieve mobility for all (including the poor, women, and disabled persons), sustainable urban transport service delivery (from the financial and environmental perspectives), and urban transport institutional development.This evaluation assesses the World Bank Group’s effectiveness in supporting countries’ efforts to achieve mobility for all (including the poor, women, and disabled persons), sustainable urban transport service delivery (from the financial and environmental perspectives), and urban transport institutional development.

Data for Development: An Evaluation of World Bank Support for Data and Statistical Capacity

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Data for Development: An Evaluation of World Bank Support for Data and Statistical Capacity
This evaluation assesses how effectively the World Bank has supported development data production, sharing, and use, and suggests ways to improve its approach. This evaluation assesses how effectively the World Bank has supported development data production, sharing, and use, and suggests ways to improve its approach.

Peru: Rural Electrification Project (PPAR)

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Peru has been one of the Latin America and the Caribbean Region’s fastest-growing economies. It grew an average 6.2 percent between 2004 and 2013. Moderate poverty was more than halved from 58 percent to 22 percent of the population between 2004 and 2015. Extreme poverty, which is mainly rural, also fell from 16 percent to 4 percent during that period. Although urban inequality declined Show MorePeru has been one of the Latin America and the Caribbean Region’s fastest-growing economies. It grew an average 6.2 percent between 2004 and 2013. Moderate poverty was more than halved from 58 percent to 22 percent of the population between 2004 and 2015. Extreme poverty, which is mainly rural, also fell from 16 percent to 4 percent during that period. Although urban inequality declined substantially, rural inequality was reduced only modestly. To avoid a reversal of its achievements, the government needs to raise the quality of basic services, expand access to markets for the poor and vulnerable, and close infrastructure gaps to facilitate access to markets and services—all of which underscores the high priority of addressing rural electricity needs. The reform of Peru’s electricity sector in 1992 separated the generation, transmission, distribution, and regulatory functions. Based on an efficient enterprise model, the reforms introduced cost-recovery tariffs, and generation and transmission were privatized. A new regulatory body was created, and private companies are now in charge of electricity distribution in Lima and other urban centers. In rural areas, about 20 public electricity distribution companies (EDCs) provide electricity service. Most of the EDCs have performed well operationally and financially, with losses of less than 12 percent and payment rates above 95 percent. In 2005, when the first Rural Electrification Project (REP I) was appraised, Peru had a rural electrification rate of 30 percent—one of the lowest in the Region. According to the Ministry of Energy and Mines, more than 300,000 isolated households in rural areas could be reached only through renewable energy technologies, specifically individual solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Prior to REP I, service providers allocated negligible funding to meet this off-grid demand through renewable energy. The scarcity of rural electricity—coupled with the broader lack of access to infrastructure—have perpetuated the cycle of low quality of life, poor education and medical care, and limited opportunities for economic development in Peru’s rural areas. Ratings for this project were as follows: outcome was satisfactory, risk to development outcome was negligible, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from this project included: i) The promotion of productive uses of electricity needs consistent and adequate levels of technical assistance and investment support, without which their sustainability is put at risk. (ii) Achieving the financial sustainability of solar photovoltaic systems remains a challenge that the government and electricity distribution companies need to address. (iii) To reach “the last mile” of rural electrification while ensuring sustainability, the government and the EDCs need to take specific actions.

China Renewable Energy Scale-Up Program: Phase I (PPAR)

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The China Renewable Energy Scale-up Program (CRESP) was designed to enable a long-term policy dialogue and engagement with the government to develop renewables on a national scale. The backbone of the CRESP partnership was a three-phase program to develop a legal and policy framework and to support technology improvements, standards and certification, preparation, and implementation of innovative Show MoreThe China Renewable Energy Scale-up Program (CRESP) was designed to enable a long-term policy dialogue and engagement with the government to develop renewables on a national scale. The backbone of the CRESP partnership was a three-phase program to develop a legal and policy framework and to support technology improvements, standards and certification, preparation, and implementation of innovative renewable energy projects across the country. Ratings for the project are as follows: Outcome was highly satisfactory, Risk to development was low, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. The main lessons that emerge from the experience of this complex project are: (i) Combining institutional development and investments in one package can help overcome difficult challenges. (ii) Adequate time and resources for preparation and consultations should be planned and allowed. (iii) Cost-shared grants can enhance selectivity and efficiently leverage knowledge transfer, technology improvement, and counterpart funding. (iv) A long-term, predictable price signal can provide an effective stimulus for continuing investments in renewable energies.

Nepal: Poverty Alleviation Fund Project

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Ratings for the Poverty Alleviation Fund I were as follows: outcome was satisfactory, risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons The community-driven development (CDD) approach can provide a powerful organizing framework the welfare of communities. (ii) The sustainability of CDD programs hinges on Show MoreRatings for the Poverty Alleviation Fund I were as follows: outcome was satisfactory, risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons The community-driven development (CDD) approach can provide a powerful organizing framework the welfare of communities. (ii) The sustainability of CDD programs hinges on finding a wise balance between program agility – achieved through independence of the implementing agency – and government ownership and coordination with line ministries. (iii) A sound assessment of community needs is essential for CDD programs. (iv) Explicitly acknowledging and addressing diversity within communities can help achieve substantial results for marginalized groups. (v) Income-generating subprojects require complementary activities, such as specific training and help in accessing markets, which need to be embedded in project design to ensure success. (vi) A carefully planned and implemented pilot phase for a project provides essential learning for a successful scaling up. (vii) Robust data collection and effective analysis of available data are crucial to modifying the project design and to identifying progress and results.

Romania: Development Policy Loan with a Deferred Drawdown Option (PPAR)

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This PPAR evaluates the Romania development policy loan with a deferred drawdown option (DPL-DDO). In the fragile postcrisis global economic context, the government requested the €1 billion loan to consolidate fiscal gains, build fiscal buffers, and accelerate structural reforms to boost a sustainable economic recovery. The loan was approved by the World Bank Board of Executive Directors in June Show MoreThis PPAR evaluates the Romania development policy loan with a deferred drawdown option (DPL-DDO). In the fragile postcrisis global economic context, the government requested the €1 billion loan to consolidate fiscal gains, build fiscal buffers, and accelerate structural reforms to boost a sustainable economic recovery. The loan was approved by the World Bank Board of Executive Directors in June 2012 and closed in October 2014 after full disbursement in two tranches: €700 million in mid-October 2013 and of €300 million at the end of June 2014. The objective of the DPL-DDO was to assist the government in meeting the fiscal sustainability goals defined by the European Union (EU) Fiscal Compact. The reform program aimed to (i) improve tax compliance, revenue collection and fiscal discipline, and reduce administrative costs; (ii) improve governance of energy state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and strengthen their fiscal sustainability; and (iii) improve fiscal sustainability of the health sector. An additional objective of the DPL-DDO, which was not explicitly stated as such in the program document or the loan agreement, was to help augment the government’s fiscal buffer as the undisbursed funds of the loan could count toward it. Ratings for the Development Policy Loan with a Deferred Drawdown Option project are as follows: outcome was moderately satisfactory, risk to development outcome was moderate, World Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Lessons from this project include: (i) The success of difficult institutional reforms in the energy sector underscored strong government commitment, which was strengthened by the liberalization roadmap agreed with the European Commission. (ii) More specifically, tax reforms are key to improving tax collection and reducing the compliance burden for taxpayers and businesses, but are potentially threatening to the status quo, which provides wide discretionary powers and rent-seeking opportunities. (iii) DPL-DDOs can be used as an effective mechanism for crisis support, and for supporting a borrower’s medium-term debt management strategy.

Using Evaluation Evidence to Improve the Effectiveness of World Bank Group Involvement in Middle-Income Countries Dealing with Fragility, Conflict, and Violence

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The Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), in partnership with the Fragility, Conflict, and Violence Cross-Cutting Solutions Area (FCV CCSA) organized a regional learning event on March 28, 2017, in Manila, the Philippines, to discuss the implications of IEG’s evaluative findings for enhancing the effectiveness of World Bank Group engagement with middle-income countries dealing with situations of Show MoreThe Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), in partnership with the Fragility, Conflict, and Violence Cross-Cutting Solutions Area (FCV CCSA) organized a regional learning event on March 28, 2017, in Manila, the Philippines, to discuss the implications of IEG’s evaluative findings for enhancing the effectiveness of World Bank Group engagement with middle-income countries dealing with situations of fragility, conflict, and violence (FCV). The event was jointly hosted by the World Bank Group Philippines Country Management Unit and the Asian Development Bank (ADB). Close to 80 participants from across the development spectrum attended the workshop (including World Bank Group and ADB staff, government officials, academics, civil society members, and staff from multilateral and bilateral development partners). This note summarizes the discussions and key takeaways from the workshop for the benefit of the broader development community and other stakeholders. It is intended as a starting point for further discussions related to improving the design and implementation of development programs in FCV situations. It concludes with some learning implications to move this agenda forward.

World Bank Group Joint Projects: A Review of Two Decades of Experience

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World Bank Group Joint Projects: A Review of Two Decades of Experience
This first systematic stocktaking by IEG of joint or co-financed projects within the World Bank Group offers insight on both benefits of, and challenges in, developing, structuring, supervising, monitoring and evaluating joint projects. It draws lessons from past experience, staff and client feedback, and highlights implications for WBG management regarding expectations of increased co-financed Show MoreThis first systematic stocktaking by IEG of joint or co-financed projects within the World Bank Group offers insight on both benefits of, and challenges in, developing, structuring, supervising, monitoring and evaluating joint projects. It draws lessons from past experience, staff and client feedback, and highlights implications for WBG management regarding expectations of increased co-financed projects in the future.