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Madagascar CLR Review FY07-13

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This Review covers both Madagascar’s Country Assistance Strategy (CAS, FY07-FY11) and Interim Strategy Note (ISN, FY12-FY13). While the CAS was a joint WBG document, the ISN was an IDA only document. The CAS implementation period was truncated due to the unconstitutional change in regime in early 2009 and the subsequent political crisis. Madagascar is a low-income country with a per capita Show MoreThis Review covers both Madagascar’s Country Assistance Strategy (CAS, FY07-FY11) and Interim Strategy Note (ISN, FY12-FY13). While the CAS was a joint WBG document, the ISN was an IDA only document. The CAS implementation period was truncated due to the unconstitutional change in regime in early 2009 and the subsequent political crisis. Madagascar is a low-income country with a per capita income of $440 and a population of 22.9 million in 2013. Between 2002 and 2008, the economy grew at an average of 5 percent per year. The country’s GDP contracted sharply by 4.0 percent in 2009. With the annual population growth of 2.8 percent, Madagascar experienced consecutive years of negative GDP growth rates per capita with -6.7% percent in 2009, followed by -2.5 percent in 2010, and -1.4 percent in 2011. Absolute poverty in the country measured by $2 PPP per capita per day, rose from an estimated 88.9 percent in 2001 to 92.7 percent of the population in 2005, then declined slightly, but stayed above the 90 percent mark through 2012. The Gini index for Madagascar was at 40. 6 in 2010 but increased to 42.7 in 2012. IEG rates the overall development outcome of the WBG program as Unsatisfactory.

Nepal: Second Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) reviews the World Bank’s Nepal Second Rural Water Supply and Sanitation (RWSS) Project, a follow-on to the First Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project, which closed in December 2003, at the government’s request. The first project’s overall outcome was rated satisfactory; the project had demonstrated that demand-driven and community-managed Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) reviews the World Bank’s Nepal Second Rural Water Supply and Sanitation (RWSS) Project, a follow-on to the First Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project, which closed in December 2003, at the government’s request. The first project’s overall outcome was rated satisfactory; the project had demonstrated that demand-driven and community-managed schemes are likely to be more sustainable than supply-driven schemes that are led by the government without extensive community participation. The development objectives of the second project, the subject of this PPAR, were to (i) improve the institutional performance of the rural water supply and sanitation sector and mainstream the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Fund Development Board (Fund Board) approach in the government’s system, and (ii) support communities to form inclusive local water supply and sanitation user groups that could plan, implement, and operate drinking water and sanitation infrastructure to deliver sustainable health, hygiene, and productivity benefits to rural households. Project ratings were as follows: outcome was moderately satisfactory, risk to development outcome was significant, World Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Major lessons from the project include: (i) Mainstreaming a community-led approach in a supply-driven government structure is difficult to implement in the absence of a prior agreement with government and continuous advocacy. (ii) Project implementation arrangements that are not linked to institutions that have a legal mandate and parallel institutional structures undermine the sustainability of the project. (iii) Given that women are main stakeholders, placing them at the center of planning and implementation of a community-led rural water supply and sanitation project supports sustainable benefits. (iv) When project sustainability rests on community contribution to the operations and maintenance (O&M) costs, there is a need to prepare and agree on an explicit O&M plan with the community at the project’s development phase. (v) In rural water supply programs aimed at increasing water supply at the village level, it is necessary to make provisions to cater to demand for higher service levels for wastewater management and water quality monitoring.

Panama: Improving Basic Health, Equity, and Opportunities among Indigenous and Poor Rural Communities (PPAR)

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This report assesses the performance of two projects: (i) the Social Protection—Support to the Red de Oportunidades (Social Protection) (P098328) project and (ii) the Health Equity and Performance Improvement (HEPI) (P106445) project. The Social Protection and HEPI projects were approved by the World Bank Board of Directors in July 2007 and in August 2008, respectively. The two projects were Show MoreThis report assesses the performance of two projects: (i) the Social Protection—Support to the Red de Oportunidades (Social Protection) (P098328) project and (ii) the Health Equity and Performance Improvement (HEPI) (P106445) project. The Social Protection and HEPI projects were approved by the World Bank Board of Directors in July 2007 and in August 2008, respectively. The two projects were prepared during the administration of President Martín Torrijos (in office September 1, 2004–July 1, 2009) and implemented during the administration of President Ricardo Martinelli (in office July 1, 2009–July 1, 2014). The Social Protection project was completed in September 2014 and the HEPI project a few months later, in December. The two projects presented a clear vision of supporting human capital and improving maternal and child health outcomes through a joint strategy of incentivizing the use of basic health services through the conditional cash transfer (CCT) program, Red de Oportunidades (RO), and of extending the coverage to indigenous and rural communities (Estrategia de Extensión de Cobertura—EEC) through mobile health teams. The two projects also shared similar interventions and activities: (i) both projects financed the EEC, (ii) both projects envisaged the implementation of impact evaluations, and (iii) both projects aimed at improving the government’s capacity to design, implement, and monitor coherent and efficient sector policies. The project’s outcome rating is Moderately Satisfactory.

World Bank Group Joint Projects: A Review of Two Decades of Experience

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World Bank Group Joint Projects: A Review of Two Decades of Experience
This first systematic stocktaking by IEG of joint or co-financed projects within the World Bank Group offers insight on both benefits of, and challenges in, developing, structuring, supervising, monitoring and evaluating joint projects. It draws lessons from past experience, staff and client feedback, and highlights implications for WBG management regarding expectations of increased co-financed Show MoreThis first systematic stocktaking by IEG of joint or co-financed projects within the World Bank Group offers insight on both benefits of, and challenges in, developing, structuring, supervising, monitoring and evaluating joint projects. It draws lessons from past experience, staff and client feedback, and highlights implications for WBG management regarding expectations of increased co-financed projects in the future.

Ethiopia CLR Review FY13-16

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of US$590 (current US$) in 2015. Its economy grew by 9.6 percent annually in real terms during the review period, faster than the Sub-Saharan Africa average (4.0 percent) and the rest of the world (2.6 percent), albeit the growth rate slowed to 6-7 percent in 2015-16 owing to a severe drought. The poverty headcount indicates that 33 percent of the population lived below the international poverty Show Moreof US$590 (current US$) in 2015. Its economy grew by 9.6 percent annually in real terms during the review period, faster than the Sub-Saharan Africa average (4.0 percent) and the rest of the world (2.6 percent), albeit the growth rate slowed to 6-7 percent in 2015-16 owing to a severe drought. The poverty headcount indicates that 33 percent of the population lived below the international poverty line of US$1.90 PPP per day in 2011. Ethiopia is among the most equal countries in the world. Inequality—with a Gini coefficient of 0.33—is low by international and Sub- Saharan Africa standards, and comparable with some OECD countries. Ethiopia made good progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) particularly in gender parity in primary education, child mortality, HIV/AIDS, and malaria. The country’s HDI ranking remained broadly at the same level between 2012 (173 out of 187) and 2015 (174 out of 187). Political stability prevailed during the review period, notwithstanding the initial uncertainty created by a change in leadership with the death of the long-serving Prime Minister. IEG rates the overall development outcome as Moderately Satisfactory.

Republic of Croatia: Agriculture Pollution Control Project (PPAR)

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The Danube River Basin is one of Europe’s largest cross-boundary river catchment areas, draining large parts of central and southeastern Europe before flowing into the Black Sea. Pollution of the Danube River and the Black Sea is a serious problem given the high volume of nutrients in these water bodies. To address pollution and support Croatia’s preparation for EU accession, the Global Show MoreThe Danube River Basin is one of Europe’s largest cross-boundary river catchment areas, draining large parts of central and southeastern Europe before flowing into the Black Sea. Pollution of the Danube River and the Black Sea is a serious problem given the high volume of nutrients in these water bodies. To address pollution and support Croatia’s preparation for EU accession, the Global Environment Facility provided a $5 million grant fund to the government of Croatia for the Agricultural Pollution Control Project (APCP), implemented with the World Bank. The APCP’s objective was “to significantly increase the use of environmentally friendly agricultural practices by farmers in the Recipient’s Danube River basin in order to reduce nutrient discharge from agricultural sources to surface and groundwater bodies.” The World Bank Board approved the project in December 2007, and the project completed as planned in July 2012. This report assessed the project’s performance. Overall, the ratings for relevance, efficacy, and efficiency result in an Outcome rating of moderately satisfactory. The performance assessment of the APCP experience suggests the following lessons, grouped under three interrelated categories: (i) Achieving long-term behavior change, (ii) Adequate implementation, and (iii) Client commitment and incentives.

IEG Work Program and Budget (FY18) and Indicative Plan (FY19-20)

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IEG’s strategic directions for FY18–20 have been defined to maximize alignment with the key strategic priorities of the World Bank Group and the main development challenges expected to affect its clients over that period. Internally, the development of a Forward Look, new agreements under the IDA18 replenishment, a new IFC Strategy, and continuous efforts to modernize the institution are guiding Show MoreIEG’s strategic directions for FY18–20 have been defined to maximize alignment with the key strategic priorities of the World Bank Group and the main development challenges expected to affect its clients over that period. Internally, the development of a Forward Look, new agreements under the IDA18 replenishment, a new IFC Strategy, and continuous efforts to modernize the institution are guiding the World Bank Group’s strategic directions. Externally, the global community has endorsed ambitious post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), but headwinds across the globe, and a combination of long-term trends, cyclical factors, and disruptions will also influence the development agenda. Against this backdrop, IEG’s work program has been designed to help the World Bank Group enhance its development impact and better address the most relevant development challenges faced by its clients.

Ukraine CLR Review FY12-16

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Ukraine is a lower middle income country with a GNI per capita of $2,640 in 2015. Leading up to the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) period, poverty had been declining, with the share of the population below the $5 poverty line decreasing from 46 percent in 2002 to 3.2 percent in 2013, and a GINI index lower than those of peer countries in the ECA region in 2014. During the CPS period, Ukraine Show MoreUkraine is a lower middle income country with a GNI per capita of $2,640 in 2015. Leading up to the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) period, poverty had been declining, with the share of the population below the $5 poverty line decreasing from 46 percent in 2002 to 3.2 percent in 2013, and a GINI index lower than those of peer countries in the ECA region in 2014. During the CPS period, Ukraine experienced almost zero growth during 2012-2013 and negative real GDP growth of -6.6 percent in 2014 and -9.9 percent in 2015. Following the Euromaidan demonstration and subsequent political events, a new Government took over in late 2014 and faced several challenges, including maintaining macroeconomic stability and managing a banking crisis. With higher unemployment and a compression of public expenditures, Ukraine experienced increases in poverty rates with the share of the population below the $5 poverty line increasing to 3.3 percent in 2014 and 5.8 percent in 2015. While the economy has stabilized, Ukraine would have to address long-standing structural, governance and anti-corruption issues to achieve sustained growth and shared prosperity. During the CPS period, Ukraine’s ranking in the Worldwide Governance Indicator (WBI) for Control of Corruption deteriorated from 17th percentile in 2011 to 15th percentile in 2014, while the ranking in the Human Development Index has remained at 83rd-84th. IEG rates development outcomes of the CPS as Moderately Unsatisfactory while Focus Area II is rated as Moderately Satisfactory. Of the six CPS objectives, three are rated as Mostly Achieved and three are rated as Partially Achieved. The overall rating takes into account the strength of the evidence in the objectives that were rated Mostly Achieved and the lack of verifiable information in one objective that resulted in its Partially Achieved rating.

Indonesia: Public Expenditure Support Facility Development Policy Loan with Deferred Drawdown Option (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Review (PPAR) evaluates the Indonesia Public Expenditure Support Facility (PESF), a $2 billion development policy loan (DPL) with a deferred drawdown option (DDO) implemented between March 2009 and December 2010. The market-dependent drawdown conditions were not met, the loan was not disbursed, and it was closed on the original closing date. The PPAR reviews Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Review (PPAR) evaluates the Indonesia Public Expenditure Support Facility (PESF), a $2 billion development policy loan (DPL) with a deferred drawdown option (DDO) implemented between March 2009 and December 2010. The market-dependent drawdown conditions were not met, the loan was not disbursed, and it was closed on the original closing date. The PPAR reviews the performance of this operation based on IEG and Operations Policy and Country Services (OPCS) guidelines on program evaluations. The main objective of the PESF was to assist the government in addressing the potential adverse impacts of the global financial crisis on public expenditures during 2009–10. To this end, the PESF supported three sets of policy objectives: (i) reassuring financial markets and maintaining financial system stability, (ii) sustaining critical public expenditures while maintaining budget discipline, and (iii) facilitating private investment and supporting exports.

Belize CLR Review FY12-15

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Belize is a small and open, upper middle income country that is highly exposed to natural disasters and terms of trade shocks. The country had a population of 359,287 in 2015 with a GNI per capita of US$4,490. The country experienced a decline in its GDP growth from 3.7 percent in 2012 to 1.0 percent in 2015, but the average growth during the review period was 2.5 percent,higher than the LAC Show MoreBelize is a small and open, upper middle income country that is highly exposed to natural disasters and terms of trade shocks. The country had a population of 359,287 in 2015 with a GNI per capita of US$4,490. The country experienced a decline in its GDP growth from 3.7 percent in 2012 to 1.0 percent in 2015, but the average growth during the review period was 2.5 percent,higher than the LAC average of 1.5 percent and at par with the rest of the world. Poverty is a rural phenomenon in Belize, reaching 55 percent compared to 28 percent in urban areas in 2009.Overall, the latest poverty estimates indicate that 42 percent of the population lived in poverty in 2009. Income inequality, as measured by the Gini coefficient increased from 0.42 in 2009 to 0.53 in 2013. In 2015, Belize ranked 103 (of 188 countries) on its Human Development Index compared to its rank of 96 (of 187 countries) in 2012. The government’s medium and long-term development strategies as reflected in the NationalPoverty Eradication Strategy and Action Plan, 2009-2013 (NPESAP), the Medium-Term Development Strategy (MTDS, 2010-2013) and Horizon 2030 articulated the priority areas ofgovernment to include sustainable environment and natural resource management, environment and disaster risk management, macroeconomic and fiscal management, government transparency and accountability, growth and sustainability, and human development. The major challenges the country faced during the CPS period include natural disasters, terms of trade shocks, rising fiscal deficits and debt accumulation. This is the first Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) for Belize following the Bank’s re-engagement in 2009 through an Interim Strategy Note (ISN-FY 09-11), after a long hiatus (2001-2009). The Bank suspended its program in the country in 2001 due to fiscal and governance concerns. The CPS had three focus areas (i) policies and strategies for mainstreaming of natural resources and climate resilience; (ii) institutional capacity strengthening for natural resource management and climate change; and (iii) investments to strengthen climate resilience. The Bank concentrated on achieving sustainable natural resource-based growth and enhanced climate resilience, leveraged its limited IBRD envelope through trust fund resources and collaboration with other development partners.