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PPAR Improving Basic Health : The World Bank’s Experience in the Philippines

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses two World Bank health projects in the Philippines: the National Sector Support for Health Reform Project and the Second Women’s Health and Safe Motherhood Project. The National Sector Support Project was approved in June 2006 and closed in March 2012, nine months after the original date of June 2011. The Second Women’s Health Project was Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses two World Bank health projects in the Philippines: the National Sector Support for Health Reform Project and the Second Women’s Health and Safe Motherhood Project. The National Sector Support Project was approved in June 2006 and closed in March 2012, nine months after the original date of June 2011. The Second Women’s Health Project was approved in April 2005 and closed in June 2013, 12 months after the original date of June 2012. For both projects, the extensions were to permit the projects additional time to finish their activities. These projects were selected for a field-based assessment for several reasons. First, both projects represented major efforts to reform the health sector in the Philippines. Second, the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) had previously recommended both projects for further evaluation during the Implementation Completion and Results Report (ICR) review process to validate ratings. Third, the PPAR will contribute to IEG’s ongoing evaluation on the World Bank’s Support for Basic Health Services. The Philippines is classified as a lower middle-income country, with a gross national income of $3,550 per capita and an estimated population of 101.6 million in 2015. In recent years, economic growth has increased substantially between 2012 and 2016, the longest period of sustained economic growth in recent history. However, poverty and inequality remain high and persistent. At the time of both projects’ appraisal, the Philippines had seen low increases of health outcomes that were among the slowest in the region. The Philippines has a double burden of disease—both from traditional public health issues and emerging noncommunicable diseases. Health equity was a major challenge, in terms of access and health outcomes, and the high cost of healthcare contributed to impoverishment. The Philippines has long pursued health reform, built around improving equity with demand-based finance through a combination of public and private health services.

Data for Development: An Evaluation of World Bank Support for Data and Statistical Capacity

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Data for Development: An Evaluation of World Bank Support for Data and Statistical Capacity
This evaluation assesses how effectively the World Bank has supported development data production, sharing, and use, and suggests ways to improve its approach. This evaluation assesses how effectively the World Bank has supported development data production, sharing, and use, and suggests ways to improve its approach.

Mobile Metropolises: Urban Transport Matters

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Mobile Metropolises: Urban Transport Matters
This evaluation assesses the World Bank Group’s effectiveness in supporting countries’ efforts to achieve mobility for all (including the poor, women, and disabled persons), sustainable urban transport service delivery (from the financial and environmental perspectives), and urban transport institutional development.This evaluation assesses the World Bank Group’s effectiveness in supporting countries’ efforts to achieve mobility for all (including the poor, women, and disabled persons), sustainable urban transport service delivery (from the financial and environmental perspectives), and urban transport institutional development.

IEG Annual Report 2017: Influence through Evaluation

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IEG Annual Report 2017: Influence through Evaluation
Fiscal year 2017 was an exciting year for IEG. In line with our long-term agenda, we delivered timely, highly relevant evaluations that speak to the current issues. Fiscal year 2017 was an exciting year for IEG. In line with our long-term agenda, we delivered timely, highly relevant evaluations that speak to the current issues.

Turkey CLR Review FY12-16

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Turkey is an upper middle income country with a GNI per capita of USD 9,950 dollars in current US dollars (2015).The government set out its objectives in the Ninth Development Plan for 2007-13 and the 2012-14 Medium-Term Program. Four priorities stood out: (i) pursue sound macroeconomic and structural fiscal policies to maintain stability and reduce vulnerabilities, (ii) improve the investment Show MoreTurkey is an upper middle income country with a GNI per capita of USD 9,950 dollars in current US dollars (2015).The government set out its objectives in the Ninth Development Plan for 2007-13 and the 2012-14 Medium-Term Program. Four priorities stood out: (i) pursue sound macroeconomic and structural fiscal policies to maintain stability and reduce vulnerabilities, (ii) improve the investment climate and labor market to increase competitiveness and create jobs, especially for women and youth, (iii) reform education, health service provision, and social welfare to increase productivity and promote equal opportunity, and (iv) continue reforms of energy and water sectors, and invest in increasing energy efficiency. In support of the government's objectives, the WBG Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) pursued reforms in three areas for enhancing competitiveness and employment, improving equity and public services, and deepening sustainable development. The CPS was extended by one year to include FY16, in part to allow the CPS period to be aligned with the political cycle, as parliamentary elections were scheduled for mid-2015.The CPS supported the government's priorities and was adjusted during the PLR to reflect changing priorities, although the adjustment was not robust enough to reflect economic vulnerabilities. The program areas were selective, but program objectives were unfocused owing to their many dimensions, which diminished the program's impact. Development policy operations and project lending were complemented by economic and sector work and technical assistance; however, the non-lending portfolio was spread thinly over many areas.In Focus Area 1, there was limited progress in increasing domestic savings and enhancing external resilience while progress was mixed on the investment and business climate objective. The objective on sustaining macroeconomic stability, domestic savings, strengthen exports and external resilience had multiple dimensions not reflected in the two outcome indicators that covered a narrow range of the objective. Corporate governance was improved through more extensive firm audits, and enhanced reporting and disclosure requirements. In Focus Area II performance was adequate, with some progress on gender equality and a more inclusive labor market, and evidence of improved equity in the provision of health services. While work remains to be done in health to improve client satisfaction, broad measures of health outcomes show progress in improving health outcomes during the program period. In Focus Area III, good progress was made in increasing the supply of energy and use of renewable energy, mixed progress on improving the sustainability of Turkish cities, and limited achievements in strengthening environmental management and adaptation to climate change.

Peru: Rural Electrification Project (PPAR)

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Peru has been one of the Latin America and the Caribbean Region’s fastest-growing economies. It grew an average 6.2 percent between 2004 and 2013. Moderate poverty was more than halved from 58 percent to 22 percent of the population between 2004 and 2015. Extreme poverty, which is mainly rural, also fell from 16 percent to 4 percent during that period. Although urban inequality declined Show MorePeru has been one of the Latin America and the Caribbean Region’s fastest-growing economies. It grew an average 6.2 percent between 2004 and 2013. Moderate poverty was more than halved from 58 percent to 22 percent of the population between 2004 and 2015. Extreme poverty, which is mainly rural, also fell from 16 percent to 4 percent during that period. Although urban inequality declined substantially, rural inequality was reduced only modestly. To avoid a reversal of its achievements, the government needs to raise the quality of basic services, expand access to markets for the poor and vulnerable, and close infrastructure gaps to facilitate access to markets and services—all of which underscores the high priority of addressing rural electricity needs. The reform of Peru’s electricity sector in 1992 separated the generation, transmission, distribution, and regulatory functions. Based on an efficient enterprise model, the reforms introduced cost-recovery tariffs, and generation and transmission were privatized. A new regulatory body was created, and private companies are now in charge of electricity distribution in Lima and other urban centers. In rural areas, about 20 public electricity distribution companies (EDCs) provide electricity service. Most of the EDCs have performed well operationally and financially, with losses of less than 12 percent and payment rates above 95 percent. In 2005, when the first Rural Electrification Project (REP I) was appraised, Peru had a rural electrification rate of 30 percent—one of the lowest in the Region. According to the Ministry of Energy and Mines, more than 300,000 isolated households in rural areas could be reached only through renewable energy technologies, specifically individual solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Prior to REP I, service providers allocated negligible funding to meet this off-grid demand through renewable energy. The scarcity of rural electricity—coupled with the broader lack of access to infrastructure—have perpetuated the cycle of low quality of life, poor education and medical care, and limited opportunities for economic development in Peru’s rural areas. Ratings for this project were as follows: outcome was satisfactory, risk to development outcome was negligible, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from this project included: i) The promotion of productive uses of electricity needs consistent and adequate levels of technical assistance and investment support, without which their sustainability is put at risk. (ii) Achieving the financial sustainability of solar photovoltaic systems remains a challenge that the government and electricity distribution companies need to address. (iii) To reach “the last mile” of rural electrification while ensuring sustainability, the government and the EDCs need to take specific actions.

World Bank Group Engagement in Upper-Middle-Income Countries: Evidence from IEG Evaluations

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This report synthesizes existing evaluative evidence on the outcomes and lessons learned from the World Bank Group’s partnership with upper-middle income countries. The report focuses mainly on IEG evaluations produced in 2007-16, including relevant thematic, corporate, and country evaluations, along with select project evaluations. This report synthesizes existing evaluative evidence on the outcomes and lessons learned from the World Bank Group’s partnership with upper-middle income countries. The report focuses mainly on IEG evaluations produced in 2007-16, including relevant thematic, corporate, and country evaluations, along with select project evaluations.

Moldova CLR Review FY14-17

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Moldova is a small, lower-middle income economy with a GNI per capita of $2,240 in 2015 (a decline from 2014). In 2015, the economy suffered from an adverse external environment, a summer drought, and a banking crisis, but IMF reports that the economy expanded by 4.1 percent in 2016. After 1999, the country has had a high economic growth and significant progress in reducing poverty and boosting Show MoreMoldova is a small, lower-middle income economy with a GNI per capita of $2,240 in 2015 (a decline from 2014). In 2015, the economy suffered from an adverse external environment, a summer drought, and a banking crisis, but IMF reports that the economy expanded by 4.1 percent in 2016. After 1999, the country has had a high economic growth and significant progress in reducing poverty and boosting shared prosperity, with 4.8 percent growth in consumption among the bottom 40 percent in 2009-14, compared with 1.3 percent for the entire population. The 2016 Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) notes that the national poverty rate shrank from 26 percent in 2007 to 11 percent in 2014. The poverty reduction in Moldova has been driven largely by remittances and pensions. The country ranked 107 out of 188 countries on the 2015 Human Development Index, representing a very modest improvement from 2010. Moldova’s ranking on the Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) declined significantly on Control of Corruption (from around 29 in 2011 to 17 in 2015). IEG ratings are as follows: development outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, and World Bank Group (WBG) performance was fair. Two main lessons from this review: First, that caution is called for in moving rapidly to focus on budget support and results based operations under circumstances where there is concern about the quality of systems and controls in financial management and procurement. Second, that results frameworks would need to be designed with outcome indicators that clearly measure the achievement of the stated objectives, taking into account country context and WBG interventions.

China Renewable Energy Scale-Up Program: Phase I (PPAR)

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The China Renewable Energy Scale-up Program (CRESP) was designed to enable a long-term policy dialogue and engagement with the government to develop renewables on a national scale. The backbone of the CRESP partnership was a three-phase program to develop a legal and policy framework and to support technology improvements, standards and certification, preparation, and implementation of innovative Show MoreThe China Renewable Energy Scale-up Program (CRESP) was designed to enable a long-term policy dialogue and engagement with the government to develop renewables on a national scale. The backbone of the CRESP partnership was a three-phase program to develop a legal and policy framework and to support technology improvements, standards and certification, preparation, and implementation of innovative renewable energy projects across the country. Ratings for the project are as follows: Outcome was highly satisfactory, Risk to development was low, Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. The main lessons that emerge from the experience of this complex project are: (i) Combining institutional development and investments in one package can help overcome difficult challenges. (ii) Adequate time and resources for preparation and consultations should be planned and allowed. (iii) Cost-shared grants can enhance selectivity and efficiently leverage knowledge transfer, technology improvement, and counterpart funding. (iv) A long-term, predictable price signal can provide an effective stimulus for continuing investments in renewable energies.

Argentina: GEF Sustainable Transport and Air Quality Program (PPAR)

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The $3.99 million Argentina Global Environment Facility (GEF) Sustainable Transport and Air Quality Program (the GEF Project or the project) was approved on November 4, 2008. The project objectives were to assist beneficiary cities in: (i) reducing the rate of greenhouse gas emissions by increasing the use of less energy-intensive and cleaner modes of transport; and ii) inducing policy changes in Show MoreThe $3.99 million Argentina Global Environment Facility (GEF) Sustainable Transport and Air Quality Program (the GEF Project or the project) was approved on November 4, 2008. The project objectives were to assist beneficiary cities in: (i) reducing the rate of greenhouse gas emissions by increasing the use of less energy-intensive and cleaner modes of transport; and ii) inducing policy changes in favor of sustainable transport policies. Ratings for GEF Sustainable Transport and Air Quality Program were as follows: outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, risk to development outcome was negligible to low, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrow performance was moderately unsatisfactory. Lessons include: (i) Broad and ambitious long-term objectives can result in implementation and efficacy challenges when the scope and timeframe of the project are limited. (ii) When selecting project implementation arrangements, whether centralized at the national level or decentralized, the World Bank should assess local capacity issues with care and realism. (iii) The rationale for linking the implementation of GEF projects with that of larger urban transport operations needs to be assessed on an individual project basis. (iv) While overall funding under GEF operations is often limited, GEF projects can promote innovative sustainable transport policy initiatives.