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Sierra Leone: Integrated Public Finance Management Reform Project (PPAR)

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This report reviews the Integrated Public Financial Management Reform Project in Sierra Leone, which was approved on June 4, 2009, and became effective on December 15, 2009. It closed on July 31, 2014. The project cost of $23.44 million was financed by a $4 million grant from the International Development Association (IDA) and $17.44 million in grants from the U.K. Department for International Show MoreThis report reviews the Integrated Public Financial Management Reform Project in Sierra Leone, which was approved on June 4, 2009, and became effective on December 15, 2009. It closed on July 31, 2014. The project cost of $23.44 million was financed by a $4 million grant from the International Development Association (IDA) and $17.44 million in grants from the U.K. Department for International Development (DFID) and the European Union (EU), which were channeled through a multi-donor trust fund administered by IDA. The Government of Sierra Leone made a counterpart contribution of $2 million. The project’s objective was to sustainably improve the credibility, control, and transparency of fiscal and budget management. Five components made up the project: (i) strengthening macrofiscal coordination and budget management, (ii) reinforcing the control system for improved service delivery, (iii) strengthening central finance functions, (iv) assisting oversight by nonstate actors (NSAs), and (v) project management. Ratings for the Integrated Public Finance Management Reform Project are as follows: Outcome is unsatisfactory. Risk to development outcome, high, World Bank performance is moderately unsatisfactory, and Borrower performance, moderately unsatisfactory. The major lessons from this project include: (i) In the absence of a conducive PFM policy environment, there are clear limits to what can be achieved through investment project financing alone. (ii) Effective support for improving the demand for good governance can benefit from broadening support beyond civil society organizations to include academia, the media, and the private sector. (iii) In the context of low Internet density, effective public dissemination of state documents calls for combining online publication with alternative means of diffusion. (iv) Effective and sustainable World Bank leadership of multi-donor support to PFM reforms requires a continuous effort by staff to consult with external partners. (v) Effective World Bank support for designing and installing information technology systems requires tailoring solutions to address borrower capacity limitations.

Bulgaria: District Heating Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) prepared by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) evaluates the development effectiveness and sustainability of results of the World Bank–financed District Heating Project in Bulgaria (2003–08). The project development objectives were to improve the quality of district heating services in the capital city of Sofia (1.6 million people) and an Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) prepared by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) evaluates the development effectiveness and sustainability of results of the World Bank–financed District Heating Project in Bulgaria (2003–08). The project development objectives were to improve the quality of district heating services in the capital city of Sofia (1.6 million people) and an adjacent town of Pernik (86,200 people), improve financial viability of the Sofia and Pernik district heating companies, and increase environmentally friendly operations in the district heating sector, through energy conservation and pollution reduction mechanisms. The project also extended funds from the World Bank–administered Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) for the purchase of carbon emission reductions resulting from the project activities. Ratings for District Heating Project were as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was substantial, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. IEG’s review of this project’s experience in Bulgaria suggests the following lessons: (i) Postponing an energy efficiency project until the necessary legal measures addressing demand-side management are implemented can lead to better outcomes. (ii) Sustainability of benefits from infrastructure investments can be put at risk if future investment needs are unmet. (iii) Investments in energy efficiency infrastructure alone are not enough to achieve sustained financial viability. (iv) Efforts to encourage private sector participation may fail when there is no strong agreement from key stakeholders in the context of a complex and changing governance structure. (v) Carbon finance operation or results-based financing can have strong demonstration effects.

Vietnam: Forest Sector Development Project (PPAR)

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The Forest Sector Development Project, which was implemented between 2004 and 2015, contributed to the significant reforestation efforts made by the people of Vietnam. In parallel to this smallholder plantation initiative, the project sought to protect biodiversity in parks and reserves. Bare hillsides underwent reforestation, and by 2017 the level of forest cover reached 48 percent (from 27 Show MoreThe Forest Sector Development Project, which was implemented between 2004 and 2015, contributed to the significant reforestation efforts made by the people of Vietnam. In parallel to this smallholder plantation initiative, the project sought to protect biodiversity in parks and reserves. Bare hillsides underwent reforestation, and by 2017 the level of forest cover reached 48 percent (from 27 percent in 1990). The improved outlook for production forest was matched by an increased government commitment to conserve biodiversity in parks and reserves, which were legally designated as special-use forests. (SUF). The two project objectives were to achieve sustainable management of plantation forests and to conserve biodiversity in special-use forests. Ratings for the Forest Sector Development Project were as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was modest, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) When located appropriately, smallholder forest plantations can boost economic growth in rural areas and help protect the environment—as long as smallholders have continuing access to a full package of technical and financial support. (ii) Smallholders with limited means tend to operate single-species tree plantations on a short rotation; it is too early to say if this trend will continue, or if it poses a long-term risk. (iii) Smallholders with limited means tend to operate single-species tree plantations. (iv) Attempts to engage communities in management of protected areas will only prosper if these areas (and their associated buffer zones) generate substantial revenues that are shared with the participating communities. (v) The design of World Bank projects should have achievable, incremental, and rigorous targets for sustainable forest management (national or international) within given timeframes with iterative steps toward recognized global standards.

Brazil: Integrated Solid Waste Management and Carbon Finance Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Integrated Solid Waste & Carbon Finance Project in Brazil. The project was approved on November 2, 2010, for a cost of US$160 million, with World Bank support of US$50 million. The project cost at completion was US$122.7 million, with only US$16.7 million of the World Bank’s loan being utilized. Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Integrated Solid Waste & Carbon Finance Project in Brazil. The project was approved on November 2, 2010, for a cost of US$160 million, with World Bank support of US$50 million. The project cost at completion was US$122.7 million, with only US$16.7 million of the World Bank’s loan being utilized. The project was closed on December 31, 2015 as planned. The objective of the project was to improve the treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste in Brazil. This was to be achieved through closing of open dumps and constructing modern and environmentally safe landfills, improving municipal solid waste management (SWM) practices, reducing poverty among waste pickers, increasing private sector participation in SWM service provision, and strengthening the borrower and implementing agency CAIXA Econômica Federale’s capacity to manage carbon finance projects. Ratings for Integrated Solid Waste Management and Carbon Finance Project were as follows: Outcome was unsatisfactory, Risk to development outcome was substantial, Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and Borrower performance was unsatisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) A project with sector-wide objectives must provide for engagement with the government at the policy level to lay a strong basis for achieving development outcomes. (ii) For an operation involving a financial intermediary, a minimum number of sub-projects must be committed at project effectiveness, to demonstrate quick successes and to develop further momentum during implementation. (iii) In an upper middle-income country with broad-based financial and institutional resources, the World Bank’s interventions in a sector should focus on functional areas with a clear need and demand for external support and expertise. (iv) In seeking to attract private sector investment and expertise to public service provision, the major barriers to entry must be clearly recognized and addressed. Incentives at the margin are unlikely to generate wide or sustained interest.

Creating Markets for Sustainable Growth and Development: An Evaluation of World Bank Group Support to Client Countries FY 07-17 (Approach Paper)

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The international development community is increasingly turning to the private sector in its pursuit of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Involving the private sector as a financier, operator or service provider in SDG relevant areas requires creating markets, i.e., putting in place an enabling business environment, overcoming a range of markets constraints, and/or enhancing competition Show MoreThe international development community is increasingly turning to the private sector in its pursuit of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Involving the private sector as a financier, operator or service provider in SDG relevant areas requires creating markets, i.e., putting in place an enabling business environment, overcoming a range of markets constraints, and/or enhancing competition through regulatory reform, pioneering investments or innovation. All these creating markets components imply certain roles for the private sector, the government and regulatory authorities. Since the 2002 World Bank Group (WBG) Private Sector Development Strategy creating markets has been a well-established part of the WBG-wide development agenda. The objective of this evaluation is to distill lessons from the Bank Group’s experience in creating markets to leverage the private sector for sustainable development and growth. Such lessons are intended to inform future program development and the upcoming implementation of the Creating market / Cascade approach. In this regard, the evaluation will obtain evidence-based findings, develop broadly-applicable lessons across the Bank Group, and propose appropriate recommendations.

Kyrgyz Republic: Village Investment Project and Second Village Investment Project (PPAR)

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This is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) of the Village Investment Project (VIP 1) and the Second Village Investment Project (VIP 2), implemented from 2003 to 2014. Both VIP projects were designed against a backdrop of persistent rural poverty, a vacuum in the supply of local infrastructure services, a lack of economic opportunities, and a nascent decentralization agenda. Project Show MoreThis is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) of the Village Investment Project (VIP 1) and the Second Village Investment Project (VIP 2), implemented from 2003 to 2014. Both VIP projects were designed against a backdrop of persistent rural poverty, a vacuum in the supply of local infrastructure services, a lack of economic opportunities, and a nascent decentralization agenda. Project design incorporated lessons from implementing a community-based pilot financed by the Japanese Social Development Fund (JSDF) and information from extensive consultations conducted as part of the thorough project preparation. High capacity and excellent support from the implementing agency created by the project were crucial factors in their successful and rapid implementation of the projects. Ratings for the Village Investment Project were as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was moderate, World Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Ratings for the Second Village Investment Project were: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was moderate, World Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) Multiple tranches of village-level financing in CDD projects can reinforce and strengthen participatory planning over time. This approach can also lower the risk of elite capture. (ii) CDD programs implemented nationally can enhance political legitimacy, especially in countries with ethnic or regional tensions. Although a move to consolidate project activities can magnify local economic gains, these consolidations carry the risk of perceptions of favoritism of one group over another. (iii) In rapidly scaled out CDD programs there is a need to pay simultaneous attention to social outreach and infrastructure quality. Poor infrastructure can undermine program legitimacy and create a public safety risk. (iv) Investments in small-scale enterprises require an upstream diagnosis of capacity and constraints and the interventions should be targeted to address known binding constraints.

Mali: Project to Support Grassroots Initiatives to Fight Hunger and Poverty (PPAR)

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This is a project performance review of the Grassroots Hunger and Poverty Initiative Project (PAIB) financed by the International Development Association (IDA) and implemented between 1998 and 2004 across two regions of Mali (Mopti and Tombouctou). Original financing was anticipated to be $23 million, including a $21.5 million IDA credit and $1.5 million borrower contribution. Actual costs were $ Show MoreThis is a project performance review of the Grassroots Hunger and Poverty Initiative Project (PAIB) financed by the International Development Association (IDA) and implemented between 1998 and 2004 across two regions of Mali (Mopti and Tombouctou). Original financing was anticipated to be $23 million, including a $21.5 million IDA credit and $1.5 million borrower contribution. Actual costs were $23.2 million. The project sought to improve the living conditions of disadvantaged targeted rural communities, responding to their priority needs by strengthening the capacity of communities in identifying and ranking their priority needs and in planning, implementing, and supervising actions to respond to those needs in partnership with nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and local authorities. In parallel, it also sought to strengthen institutional and policy-making capacity at the local and national levels in the fight against hunger and poverty.

The International Finance Corporation’s Approach to Engaging Clients for Increased Development Impact

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IFC Client Engagement
Client engagement is essential for the IFC to support the private sector, maximize finance for development, and contribute to achieving the World Bank Group's twin goals. This IEG evaluation assesses how the IFC has implemented its strategic approach to client engagement since the early 2000s, and its effects on IFC's clients and the development impact of its operations.Client engagement is essential for the IFC to support the private sector, maximize finance for development, and contribute to achieving the World Bank Group's twin goals. This IEG evaluation assesses how the IFC has implemented its strategic approach to client engagement since the early 2000s, and its effects on IFC's clients and the development impact of its operations.

A Thirst for Change: An Evaluation of the World Bank Group’s Support for Water Supply and Sanitation with Focus on the Poor

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A Thirst for Change
This evaluation assesses the World Bank Group’s effectiveness in supporting improved access to adequate, reliable, and sustained water and sanitation services in client countries. It also examines how well the Bank Group is equipped to support the countries in moving toward sustained water and sanitation services for all, with a focus on the poor, in keeping with Sustainable Development Goal 6.This evaluation assesses the World Bank Group’s effectiveness in supporting improved access to adequate, reliable, and sustained water and sanitation services in client countries. It also examines how well the Bank Group is equipped to support the countries in moving toward sustained water and sanitation services for all, with a focus on the poor, in keeping with Sustainable Development Goal 6.

Knowledge Flow and Collaboration Under the World Bank's New Operating Model (Approach Paper)

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This evaluation will assess whether operational structures, processes, and behaviors embedded in the World Bank’s new operating model (that is, the model associated with the Global Practices and Cross-cutting Solutions Areas) have thus far stimulated knowledge flow and collaboration as means to advancing the Bank Group’s goals and strategies. As an early-stage, or formative, evaluation, findings Show MoreThis evaluation will assess whether operational structures, processes, and behaviors embedded in the World Bank’s new operating model (that is, the model associated with the Global Practices and Cross-cutting Solutions Areas) have thus far stimulated knowledge flow and collaboration as means to advancing the Bank Group’s goals and strategies. As an early-stage, or formative, evaluation, findings will reflect the initial implementation of the model, helping to identify emerging lessons and inform course corrections. Recent years has been a time of change in the World Bank Group. New goals and strategies have been combined with a number of reforms to internal structures and processes. This evaluation will focus specifically on reforms to the World Bank operating model and, within that, on reforms aimed at enhancing knowledge flow and collaboration. Enhancing knowledge flow and collaboration across Regions, sectors, and World Bank Group institutions was a prominent goal of the 2013 World Bank Group (WBG) Strategy and the creation of the Global Practices (GPs) and Cross-cutting Solutions Areas (CCSAs).