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Vietnam: Forest Sector Development Project (PPAR)

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The Forest Sector Development Project, which was implemented between 2004 and 2015, contributed to the significant reforestation efforts made by the people of Vietnam. In parallel to this smallholder plantation initiative, the project sought to protect biodiversity in parks and reserves. Bare hillsides underwent reforestation, and by 2017 the level of forest cover reached 48 percent (from 27 Show MoreThe Forest Sector Development Project, which was implemented between 2004 and 2015, contributed to the significant reforestation efforts made by the people of Vietnam. In parallel to this smallholder plantation initiative, the project sought to protect biodiversity in parks and reserves. Bare hillsides underwent reforestation, and by 2017 the level of forest cover reached 48 percent (from 27 percent in 1990). The improved outlook for production forest was matched by an increased government commitment to conserve biodiversity in parks and reserves, which were legally designated as special-use forests. (SUF). The two project objectives were to achieve sustainable management of plantation forests and to conserve biodiversity in special-use forests. Ratings for the Forest Sector Development Project were as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was modest, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrower performance was moderately satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) When located appropriately, smallholder forest plantations can boost economic growth in rural areas and help protect the environment—as long as smallholders have continuing access to a full package of technical and financial support. (ii) Smallholders with limited means tend to operate single-species tree plantations on a short rotation; it is too early to say if this trend will continue, or if it poses a long-term risk. (iii) Smallholders with limited means tend to operate single-species tree plantations. (iv) Attempts to engage communities in management of protected areas will only prosper if these areas (and their associated buffer zones) generate substantial revenues that are shared with the participating communities. (v) The design of World Bank projects should have achievable, incremental, and rigorous targets for sustainable forest management (national or international) within given timeframes with iterative steps toward recognized global standards.

Nicaragua CLR Review FY13-17

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Nicaragua is a lower middle-income country with a GNI per capita of $2,050 in 2016. Nicaragua’s annual economic growth increased from 3.3 percent during the prior CPS period (2008-2012) to 4.9 percent during the CPS period under review (2013-17). Growth was sustained by an adequate macro and fiscal environment and responded to higher growth of the US economy, from 0.9 percent to 2.2 percent Show MoreNicaragua is a lower middle-income country with a GNI per capita of $2,050 in 2016. Nicaragua’s annual economic growth increased from 3.3 percent during the prior CPS period (2008-2012) to 4.9 percent during the CPS period under review (2013-17). Growth was sustained by an adequate macro and fiscal environment and responded to higher growth of the US economy, from 0.9 percent to 2.2 percent between the two CPS periods. Growth helped reduce poverty rates, from 42.5 percent in 2009 to 29.6 percent in 2014 and 24.9 percent in 2016. Better social conditions are reflected in Nicaragua’s Human Development Index, which improved from 0.636 in 2013 (ranked 132nd among 187 countries) to 0.645 in 2015 (ranked 124th among 188 countries). However, inequality (the GINI Index) increased, from 44.2 in 2009 to 46.6 in 2014. The poverty rate in rural areas (50.1 percent in 2014) remains higher than in urban areas (14.8 percent in 2014), and 45 percent of Nicaraguans are at risk of falling into poverty if hit by a shock.

Brazil: Integrated Solid Waste Management and Carbon Finance Project (PPAR)

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This Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Integrated Solid Waste & Carbon Finance Project in Brazil. The project was approved on November 2, 2010, for a cost of US$160 million, with World Bank support of US$50 million. The project cost at completion was US$122.7 million, with only US$16.7 million of the World Bank’s loan being utilized. Show MoreThis Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) assesses the development effectiveness of the Integrated Solid Waste & Carbon Finance Project in Brazil. The project was approved on November 2, 2010, for a cost of US$160 million, with World Bank support of US$50 million. The project cost at completion was US$122.7 million, with only US$16.7 million of the World Bank’s loan being utilized. The project was closed on December 31, 2015 as planned. The objective of the project was to improve the treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste in Brazil. This was to be achieved through closing of open dumps and constructing modern and environmentally safe landfills, improving municipal solid waste management (SWM) practices, reducing poverty among waste pickers, increasing private sector participation in SWM service provision, and strengthening the borrower and implementing agency CAIXA Econômica Federale’s capacity to manage carbon finance projects. Ratings for Integrated Solid Waste Management and Carbon Finance Project were as follows: Outcome was unsatisfactory, Risk to development outcome was substantial, Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and Borrower performance was unsatisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) A project with sector-wide objectives must provide for engagement with the government at the policy level to lay a strong basis for achieving development outcomes. (ii) For an operation involving a financial intermediary, a minimum number of sub-projects must be committed at project effectiveness, to demonstrate quick successes and to develop further momentum during implementation. (iii) In an upper middle-income country with broad-based financial and institutional resources, the World Bank’s interventions in a sector should focus on functional areas with a clear need and demand for external support and expertise. (iv) In seeking to attract private sector investment and expertise to public service provision, the major barriers to entry must be clearly recognized and addressed. Incentives at the margin are unlikely to generate wide or sustained interest.

Creating Markets for Sustainable Growth and Development: An Evaluation of World Bank Group Support to Client Countries FY 07-17 (Approach Paper)

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The international development community is increasingly turning to the private sector in its pursuit of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Involving the private sector as a financier, operator or service provider in SDG relevant areas requires creating markets, i.e., putting in place an enabling business environment, overcoming a range of markets constraints, and/or enhancing competition Show MoreThe international development community is increasingly turning to the private sector in its pursuit of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Involving the private sector as a financier, operator or service provider in SDG relevant areas requires creating markets, i.e., putting in place an enabling business environment, overcoming a range of markets constraints, and/or enhancing competition through regulatory reform, pioneering investments or innovation. All these creating markets components imply certain roles for the private sector, the government and regulatory authorities. Since the 2002 World Bank Group (WBG) Private Sector Development Strategy creating markets has been a well-established part of the WBG-wide development agenda. The objective of this evaluation is to distill lessons from the Bank Group’s experience in creating markets to leverage the private sector for sustainable development and growth. Such lessons are intended to inform future program development and the upcoming implementation of the Creating market / Cascade approach. In this regard, the evaluation will obtain evidence-based findings, develop broadly-applicable lessons across the Bank Group, and propose appropriate recommendations.

Kyrgyz Republic: Village Investment Project and Second Village Investment Project (PPAR)

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This is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) of the Village Investment Project (VIP 1) and the Second Village Investment Project (VIP 2), implemented from 2003 to 2014. Both VIP projects were designed against a backdrop of persistent rural poverty, a vacuum in the supply of local infrastructure services, a lack of economic opportunities, and a nascent decentralization agenda. Project Show MoreThis is a Project Performance Assessment Report (PPAR) of the Village Investment Project (VIP 1) and the Second Village Investment Project (VIP 2), implemented from 2003 to 2014. Both VIP projects were designed against a backdrop of persistent rural poverty, a vacuum in the supply of local infrastructure services, a lack of economic opportunities, and a nascent decentralization agenda. Project design incorporated lessons from implementing a community-based pilot financed by the Japanese Social Development Fund (JSDF) and information from extensive consultations conducted as part of the thorough project preparation. High capacity and excellent support from the implementing agency created by the project were crucial factors in their successful and rapid implementation of the projects. Ratings for the Village Investment Project were as follows: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was moderate, World Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Ratings for the Second Village Investment Project were: Outcome was satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was moderate, World Bank performance was satisfactory, and Borrower performance was satisfactory. Lessons from the project include: (i) Multiple tranches of village-level financing in CDD projects can reinforce and strengthen participatory planning over time. This approach can also lower the risk of elite capture. (ii) CDD programs implemented nationally can enhance political legitimacy, especially in countries with ethnic or regional tensions. Although a move to consolidate project activities can magnify local economic gains, these consolidations carry the risk of perceptions of favoritism of one group over another. (iii) In rapidly scaled out CDD programs there is a need to pay simultaneous attention to social outreach and infrastructure quality. Poor infrastructure can undermine program legitimacy and create a public safety risk. (iv) Investments in small-scale enterprises require an upstream diagnosis of capacity and constraints and the interventions should be targeted to address known binding constraints.

Mali: Project to Support Grassroots Initiatives to Fight Hunger and Poverty (PPAR)

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This is a project performance review of the Grassroots Hunger and Poverty Initiative Project (PAIB) financed by the International Development Association (IDA) and implemented between 1998 and 2004 across two regions of Mali (Mopti and Tombouctou). Original financing was anticipated to be $23 million, including a $21.5 million IDA credit and $1.5 million borrower contribution. Actual costs were $ Show MoreThis is a project performance review of the Grassroots Hunger and Poverty Initiative Project (PAIB) financed by the International Development Association (IDA) and implemented between 1998 and 2004 across two regions of Mali (Mopti and Tombouctou). Original financing was anticipated to be $23 million, including a $21.5 million IDA credit and $1.5 million borrower contribution. Actual costs were $23.2 million. The project sought to improve the living conditions of disadvantaged targeted rural communities, responding to their priority needs by strengthening the capacity of communities in identifying and ranking their priority needs and in planning, implementing, and supervising actions to respond to those needs in partnership with nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and local authorities. In parallel, it also sought to strengthen institutional and policy-making capacity at the local and national levels in the fight against hunger and poverty.

The International Finance Corporation’s Approach to Engaging Clients for Increased Development Impact

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IFC Client Engagement
Client engagement is essential for the IFC to support the private sector, maximize finance for development, and contribute to achieving the World Bank Group's twin goals. This IEG evaluation assesses how the IFC has implemented its strategic approach to client engagement since the early 2000s, and its effects on IFC's clients and the development impact of its operations.Client engagement is essential for the IFC to support the private sector, maximize finance for development, and contribute to achieving the World Bank Group's twin goals. This IEG evaluation assesses how the IFC has implemented its strategic approach to client engagement since the early 2000s, and its effects on IFC's clients and the development impact of its operations.

A Thirst for Change: An Evaluation of the World Bank Group’s Support for Water Supply and Sanitation with Focus on the Poor

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A Thirst for Change
This evaluation assesses the World Bank Group’s effectiveness in supporting improved access to adequate, reliable, and sustained water and sanitation services in client countries. It also examines how well the Bank Group is equipped to support the countries in moving toward sustained water and sanitation services for all, with a focus on the poor, in keeping with Sustainable Development Goal 6.This evaluation assesses the World Bank Group’s effectiveness in supporting improved access to adequate, reliable, and sustained water and sanitation services in client countries. It also examines how well the Bank Group is equipped to support the countries in moving toward sustained water and sanitation services for all, with a focus on the poor, in keeping with Sustainable Development Goal 6.

Knowledge Flow and Collaboration Under the World Bank's New Operating Model (Approach Paper)

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This evaluation will assess whether operational structures, processes, and behaviors embedded in the World Bank’s new operating model (that is, the model associated with the Global Practices and Cross-cutting Solutions Areas) have thus far stimulated knowledge flow and collaboration as means to advancing the Bank Group’s goals and strategies. As an early-stage, or formative, evaluation, findings Show MoreThis evaluation will assess whether operational structures, processes, and behaviors embedded in the World Bank’s new operating model (that is, the model associated with the Global Practices and Cross-cutting Solutions Areas) have thus far stimulated knowledge flow and collaboration as means to advancing the Bank Group’s goals and strategies. As an early-stage, or formative, evaluation, findings will reflect the initial implementation of the model, helping to identify emerging lessons and inform course corrections. Recent years has been a time of change in the World Bank Group. New goals and strategies have been combined with a number of reforms to internal structures and processes. This evaluation will focus specifically on reforms to the World Bank operating model and, within that, on reforms aimed at enhancing knowledge flow and collaboration. Enhancing knowledge flow and collaboration across Regions, sectors, and World Bank Group institutions was a prominent goal of the 2013 World Bank Group (WBG) Strategy and the creation of the Global Practices (GPs) and Cross-cutting Solutions Areas (CCSAs).

Towards Urban Resilience: An Evaluation of the World Bank Group’s Evolving Approach 2007-2017 (Approach Paper)

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Half of humanity – 3.5 billion people – lives in cities today and by 2030, 60% of the world’s population will live in urban areas. Urbanization has the potential to lift people out of poverty and increase prosperity, yet rapid urbanization and unmanaged growth, tend to generate unsustainable land use, which is nearly impossible to change after a city grows. The urban poor are disproportionally Show MoreHalf of humanity – 3.5 billion people – lives in cities today and by 2030, 60% of the world’s population will live in urban areas. Urbanization has the potential to lift people out of poverty and increase prosperity, yet rapid urbanization and unmanaged growth, tend to generate unsustainable land use, which is nearly impossible to change after a city grows. The urban poor are disproportionally affected by chronic stress and shocks. The international community has recognized the importance of achieving sustainable and inclusive urban development by increasing attention to the resilience of cities. The purpose of this evaluation is to provide evaluative insights on the WBG’s role in helping clients foster urban resilience in the face of shocks, threats and chronic stress. The specific objective of this evaluation is to assess how well the WBG is helping clients to build urban resilience – to cope, recover, adapt and transform - in the face of shocks and chronic stress as the World Bank Group seeks to scale up its advice and investment in this domain. The evaluation will place attention on how urban resilience initiatives are linked to the Bank’s broader poverty reduction goals.