Before joining The World Bank’s Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), Soniya Carvalho worked in the central poverty units of The World Bank. At IEG, she has led/co-led ten major evaluations, including those on Poverty Assessments, Social Funds, Fragile States, Millennium Development Goals, Monitoring and Evaluation Systems, Poverty and Social Impact Assessments, Learning and Results I and II, Data for Development, and Results and Performance of the World Bank Group.

Carvalho's in-country operational work includes that in Bangladesh, Brazil, Cambodia, Egypt, Eritrea, India, Jamaica, Lao PDR, Nigeria, Philippines, Romania, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Zimbabwe. Her areas of specialization are evaluation methodology, managing for results, poverty reduction, design and implementation of safety nets and social funds, behavioral science, and technology for development. She has published in peer-reviewed journals and also has numerous World Bank publications to her name.

She holds an M. Phil. in Development Economics from the University of Cambridge, U.K.